Biological Control Of Insect Pests Using Egg Parasitoids

Author: S. Sithanantham
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 8132211812
Size: 55.70 MB
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The theme of the book is highly relevant to the current emphasis on environment conservation, with focus on native biodiversity conservation in agro-ecosystems. The current impetus being given to organic farming and export oriented agri-hortculture in the country calls for access to relevant scientific knowledge base among the stakeholders. Research on biological pest control is more than a century old in India. Egg parasitoids, which are mainly tiny wasps, led by the family Trichogrammatidae, are the most widely utilized natural enemies for biological control globally. Over thirty countries are using these bioagents to protect over 10 million hectares of agricultural and forestry crops from many important insect pests. The book comprises 18 chapters, which are arranged in continuum, commencing with basic aspects of knowledge and ending in their utilization targets. The chapters cover broadly four areas: bio-diversity and natural occurrence of egg parasitoids, behaviour and adaptation of egg parasitoids, mass production and safe use of egg parasitoids and utilisation of egg parasitoids in different crop ecosystems. Some of the chapters cater to the needs of discipline-wise update on the current R&D scenario-like insect taxonomy, biotechnology, mass-production and quality control of the target organisms - egg-parasitoids, which are useful for laboratory scientists/researchers. There are also chapters devoted to knowledge status and scope for utilization of egg parasitoids in different target crops, which cater to requirements of field entomologists and extensionists for use in their tasks of guiding farmers/local guides. The book is different in approach, method, structure and content and ensures holistic coverage of the topic. The chapters are written by active and experienced workers in different crops and aspects and co-edited by four very experienced experts who have over three decades R&D experience in the subject. All the authors have uniformly focussed on comprehensive literature study and critical identification of knowledge gaps for future R&D, thus the book is novel in outlook, up-to-date in content and comprehensive in coverage of themes. This book will be useful for supplementary reading for MSc Agriculture and PhD Agriculture students, besides MSc/PhD research students in Zoology/Environmental Biology, who are specialising in Entomology. It would also serve as a very useful reference book for researchers worldwide, though focus is also there on Indian work. It addresses the special information needs of students and faculty, besides practitioners and extensionists in the Australasia and Africa regions and thus not limited to the R&D knowledge generated in developed countries.

Egg Parasitoids In Agroecosystems With Emphasis On Trichogramma

Author: Fernando L. Consoli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402091100
Size: 33.59 MB
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Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems with emphasis on Trichogramma was conceived to help in the promotion of biological control through egg parasitoids by providing both basic and applied information. The book has a series of chapters dedicated to the understanding of egg parasitoid taxonomy, development, nutrition and reproduction, host recognition and utilization, and their distribution and host associations. There are also several chapters focusing on the mass production and commercialization of egg parasitoids for biological control, addressing important issues such as parasitoid quality control, the risk assessment of egg parasitoids to non-target species, the use of egg parasitoids in integrated pest management programs and the impact of GMO on these natural enemies. Chapters provide an in depth analysis of the literature available, are richly illustrated, and propose future trends.

Biological Control With Egg Parasitoids

Author: E. Wajnberg
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 9780851988825
Size: 80.42 MB
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Contributors Preface 1. Systematics of the Trichogrammatidae with Emphasis on Trichogramma, John D. Pinto and Richard Stouthamer 2. Worldwide Use of Trichogramma for Biological Control on Different Crops: A Survey, Li-Ying Li 3. Strategies to Select Trichogramma Species for Use in Biological Control, Sherif A. Hassan 4. Rearing of Trichogramma and Other Egg Parasitoids on Artificial Diets, Simon Grenier 5. Quality Control in Trichogramma Production, Franz Bigler 6. Methods and Timing of Releases of Trichogramma to Control Lepidopterous Pests, Sandy M. Smith 7. Biological Control with Egg Parasitoids Other Than Trichogramma, Ferdinando Bin 8. Habitat Location by Trichogramma, Donald A. Nordlund 9. Host Recognition and Acceptance by Trichogramma, Jonathan M. Schmidt 10. Physiological Interactions between Egg Parasitoids and Their Hosts, S. Bradleigh Vinson 11. Overwintering Strategies of Egg Parasitoids, Guy Boivin 12. Intra-population Genetic Variation in Trichogramma, Eric Wajnberg Index

Predators And Parasitoids

Author: Opender Koul
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203302569
Size: 69.65 MB
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Their natural enemies largely determine the population size and dynamic behavior of many plant-eating insects. Any reduction in enemy number can result in an insect outbreak. Applied biological control is thus one strategy for restoring functional biodiversity in many agroecosystems. Predators and Parasitoids addresses the role of natural enemies in pest control as an integrated pest management concept. It examines how Trichogramma, the extensively studied natural enemy of insect pests, has been used as a pest management tool, and it describes important aspects such as the inducible defense mechanisms of plants and the effects that plant diversity can have on herbivores and natural enemies. Specific chapters address recent advances in biological control: the effects of multiparasitism on parasitization; synergism between insect pathogens and entomophagous insects; and the use of exotic insects for weed control. With contributions from leading worldwide experts, Predators and Parasitoids is ideal for graduate students, research scientists and professionals in biological pest control, agriculture, entomology and ecology.

Chemical Ecology Of Insect Parasitoids

Author: Eric Wajnberg
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118409604
Size: 38.62 MB
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Insect parasitoids are a fascinating group of animals in many respects. Perhaps the most fascinating point is that these insects, in the course of the evolutionary time, have developed an impressive way to use chemical compounds to dialogue with the different protagonists of their environment (i.e., conspecifics, their hosts and the plants on which their hosts are living). Unravelling the evolutionary meaning of such chemical communication networks can give new insights into the ecology of these insects and especially on how to improve their use for the control of noxious pests in biological control programmes. Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids is a timely publication, with organised chapters to present the most important knowledge and discoveries that have taken place over the last decade, and their potential use in pest control strategy. Specific relevant case studies are presented to enhance the reader's experience. Suited to graduate students and professional researchers and practitioners in pest management, entomology, evolutionary biology, behavioural ecology, and chemical ecology, this book is essential for anyone needing information on this important group of insects.

Control Of Pests And Weeds By Natural Enemies

Author: Roy van Driesche
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444300415
Size: 26.18 MB
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Biological control – utilizing a population of natural enemies to seasonally or permanently suppress pests – is not a new concept. The cottony cushion scale, which nearly destroyed the citrus industry of California, was controlled by an introduced predatory insect in the 1880s. Accelerated invasions by insects and spread of weedy non-native plants in the last century have increased the need for the use of biological control. Use of carefully chosen natural enemies has become a major tool for the protection of natural ecosystems, biodiversity and agricultural and urban environments. This book offers a multifaceted yet integrated discussion on two major applications of biological control: permanent control of invasive insects and plants at the landscape level and temporary suppression of both native and exotic pests in farms, tree plantations, and greenhouses. Written by leading international experts in the field, the text discusses control of invasive species and the role of natural enemies in pest management. This book is essential reading for courses on Invasive Species, Pest Management, and Crop Protection. It is an invaluable reference book for biocontrol professionals, restorationists, agriculturalists, and wildlife biologists. Further information and resources can be found on the Editor’s own website at: www.invasiveforestinsectandweedbiocontrol.info/index.htm

Natural Enemies

Author: Ann E. Hajek
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521653855
Size: 62.14 MB
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Introductory text covering biological control of arthropods, vertebrates, weeds and plant pathogens by natural enemies.

Handbook Of Biological Control

Author: T. W. Fisher
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080533018
Size: 71.94 MB
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For many years the use of chemical agents such as pesticides and herbicides has been effective in controlling the many varieties of pests that infest both agricultural crops and backyard gardens. However, these pests are gradually becoming resistant to these agents, because the agents themselves are acting as selective factors making the pests better and better able to resist and persist. As a result, the use of biological controlling agents is increasing. This book is a comprehensive and authoritative handbook of biological control. Key Features * Introduction (preface plus 2 chapters) * Principles and processes (12 chapters) * Agents, biology, and methods (6 chapters) * Applications (10 chapters) * Research (2 chapters)

Parasitoid Viruses

Author: Nancy E. Beckage
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012384858X
Size: 21.37 MB
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Parasitoids are parasitic insects that kill their insect hosts in immature pre-reproductive stages. Parasitoids are employed in biological control programs worldwide to kill insect pests and are environmentally safe and benign alternatives to chemical pesticides. As resistance to chemical pesticides continues to escalate in many pest populations, attention is now refocusing on biologically-based strategies to control pest species in agriculture and forestry as well as insect vector populations that transmit human and animal diseases. Parasitoids are an economically critical element in this equation and 'integrated pest management.' Viruses have evolved intimate associations with parasitoids, and this book features sections on both symbiotic viruses that are integrated into the wasp's chromosomal DNA (polydnaviruses) that play critical roles in suppressing host immunity during parasitism. A separate section with additional chapters on viral pathogens that infect parasitoids to cause disease and act as detrimental agents that limit effectiveness of wasp species employed in biological control of pests is also featured. A third component is a section on parasitoid venoms, which are of interest to the pharmaceutical and medical communities as well as insect-oriented biologists. Sections focus on both virus evolution and genomics as well as proteomics and functional roles of polydnavirus-encoded gene products International researchers and emerging leaders in their fields provide readers with syntheses of the latest research Includes content on both symbiotic viruses and pathogenic viruses, plus new research on parasitoid venoms Cutting-edge section on future directions in the field covers the impacts of polydnavirus research on medicine, human health, bioengineering and the economy, increasing the value for researchers and practitioners who need to stay on top of the research in this swiftly moving field

Biology Ecology And Systematics Of Australian Scelio

Author: Paul Dangerfield
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
ISBN: 0643102442
Size: 65.99 MB
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Parasitic wasps of the genus Scelio play an important role in the regulation of orthopteran populations and are implicated in suppressing numbers of numerous pest locusts and grasshoppers. This landmark volume provides a full taxonomic treatment of the sixty species of Scelio found on the Australian continent and reviews in detail the biology and ecology and host relationships of Scelio on a worldwide basis. Taking an international perspective, the text outlines our current knowledge on topics such as host finding, population biology, and methods and techniques for collection and study in the field. The use of Scelio as biological control agents is discussed and comprehensive checklists document the recorded host relationships of each known species worldwide. There is a full taxonomic revision of all Australian species of Scelio, half of which are newly described. Each species description is complemented with high-quality line drawings, micrographs and distribution maps. In addition, an illustrated key to species enables easy identification of species by non-taxonomists. Biology, Ecology and Systematics of Australian Scelio provides wasp taxonomists, researchers of orthoptera and biological control workers with a basis for detailed studies elsewhere on this economically important group of insects.