Computability And Randomness

Author: André Nies
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191627887
Size: 64.33 MB
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The interplay between computability and randomness has been an active area of research in recent years, reflected by ample funding in the USA, numerous workshops, and publications on the subject. The complexity and the randomness aspect of a set of natural numbers are closely related. Traditionally, computability theory is concerned with the complexity aspect. However, computability theoretic tools can also be used to introduce mathematical counterparts for the intuitive notion of randomness of a set. Recent research shows that, conversely, concepts and methods originating from randomness enrich computability theory. The book covers topics such as lowness and highness properties, Kolmogorov complexity, betting strategies and higher computability. Both the basics and recent research results are desribed, providing a very readable introduction to the exciting interface of computability and randomness for graduates and researchers in computability theory, theoretical computer science, and measure theory.

Computability Theory

Author: Rebecca Weber
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 082187392X
Size: 35.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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What can we compute--even with unlimited resources? Is everything within reach? Or are computations necessarily drastically limited, not just in practice, but theoretically? These questions are at the heart of computability theory. The goal of this book is to give the reader a firm grounding in the fundamentals of computability theory and an overview of currently active areas of research, such as reverse mathematics and algorithmic randomness. Turing machines and partial recursive functions are explored in detail, and vital tools and concepts including coding, uniformity, and diagonalization are described explicitly. From there the material continues with universal machines, the halting problem, parametrization and the recursion theorem, and thence to computability for sets, enumerability, and Turing reduction and degrees. A few more advanced topics round out the book before the chapter on areas of research. The text is designed to be self-contained, with an entire chapter of preliminary material including relations, recursion, induction, and logical and set notation and operators. That background, along with ample explanation, examples, exercises, and suggestions for further reading, make this book ideal for independent study or courses with few prerequisites.

Evolving Computability

Author: Arnold Beckmann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319200283
Size: 27.75 MB
Format: PDF
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2015, held in Bucharest, Romania, in June/July 2015. The 26 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 64 submissions and included together with 10 invited papers in this proceedings. The conference CiE 2015 has six special sessions: two sessions, Representing Streams and Reverse Mathematics, were introduced for the first time in the conference series. In addition to this, new developments in areas frequently covered in the CiE conference series were addressed in the further special sessions on Automata, Logic and Infinite Games; Bio-inspired Computation; Classical Computability Theory; as well as History and Philosophy of Computing.

Computability And Complexity

Author: Adam Day
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319500627
Size: 14.63 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This Festschrift is published in honor of Rodney G. Downey, eminent logician and computer scientist, surfer and Scottish country dancer, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The Festschrift contains papers and laudations that showcase the broad and important scientific, leadership and mentoring contributions made by Rod during his distinguished career. The volume contains 42 papers presenting original unpublished research, or expository and survey results in Turing degrees, computably enumerable sets, computable algebra, computable model theory, algorithmic randomness, reverse mathematics, and parameterized complexity, all areas in which Rod Downey has had significant interests and influence. The volume contains several surveys that make the various areas accessible to non-specialists while also including some proofs that illustrate the flavor of the fields.

The Foundations Of Computability Theory

Author: Borut Robič
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662448084
Size: 43.62 MB
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This book offers an original and informative view of the development of fundamental concepts of computability theory. The treatment is put into historical context, emphasizing the motivation for ideas as well as their logical and formal development. In Part I the author introduces computability theory, with chapters on the foundational crisis of mathematics in the early twentieth century, and formalism; in Part II he explains classical computability theory, with chapters on the quest for formalization, the Turing Machine, and early successes such as defining incomputable problems, c.e. (computably enumerable) sets, and developing methods for proving incomputability; in Part III he explains relative computability, with chapters on computation with external help, degrees of unsolvability, the Turing hierarchy of unsolvability, the class of degrees of unsolvability, c.e. degrees and the priority method, and the arithmetical hierarchy. This is a gentle introduction from the origins of computability theory up to current research, and it will be of value as a textbook and guide for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the domains of computability theory and theoretical computer science.

Algorithmic Randomness And Complexity

Author: Rodney G. Downey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387684417
Size: 49.59 MB
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Computability and complexity theory are two central areas of research in theoretical computer science. This book provides a systematic, technical development of "algorithmic randomness" and complexity for scientists from diverse fields.

Proceedings Of The 12th Asian Logic Conference

Author: Rod Downey
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814449288
Size: 59.86 MB
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The Asian Logic Conference is the most significant logic meeting outside of North America and Europe, and this volume represents work presented at, and arising from the 12th meeting. It collects a number of interesting papers from experts in the field. It covers many areas of logic. Contents:Resolute Sequences in Initial Segment Complexity (G Barmpalias and R G Downey)Approximating Functions and Measuring Distance on a Graph (W Calvert, R Miller and J Chubb Reimann)Carnap and McKinsey: Topics in the Pre-History of Possible-Worlds Semantics (M J Cresswell)Limits to Joining with Generics and Randoms (A R Day and D D Dzhafarov)Freedom & Consistency (M Detlefsen)A van Lambalgen Theorem for Demuth Randomness (D Diamondstone, N Greenberg and D Turetsky)Faithful Representations of Polishable Ideals (S Gao)Further Thoughts on Definability in the Urysohn Sphere (I Goldbring)Simple Completeness Proofs for Some Spatial Logics of the Real Line (I Hodkinson)On a Question of Csima on Computation-Time Domination (X Hua, J Liu and G Wu)A Generalization of Beth Model to Functionals of High Types (F Kachapova)A Computational Framework for the Study of Partition Functions and Graph Polynomials (T Kotek, J A Makowsky and E V Ravve)Relation Algebras and R (T Kowalski)Van Lambalgen's Theorem for Uniformly Relative Schnorr and Computable Randomness (K Miyabe and J Rute)Computational Aspects of the Hyperimmune-Free Degrees (K M Ng, F Stephan, Y Yang and L Yu)Calibrating the Complexity of Δ02 Sets via Their Changes (A Nies)Topological Full Groups of Minimal Subshifts and Just-Infnite Groups (S Thomas)TW-Models for Logic of Knowledge-cum-Belief (S C-M Yang) Readership: Researchers in mathematical logic and algebra, computer scientists in artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic. Keywords:Asian Logic Conference;Logic;Computability;Set Theory;Modal Logic

Category Theory

Author: Steve Awodey
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191612553
Size: 16.76 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Category theory is a branch of abstract algebra with incredibly diverse applications. This text and reference book is aimed not only at mathematicians, but also researchers and students of computer science, logic, linguistics, cognitive science, philosophy, and any of the other fields in which the ideas are being applied. Containing clear definitions of the essential concepts, illuminated with numerous accessible examples, and providing full proofs of all important propositions and theorems, this book aims to make the basic ideas, theorems, and methods of category theory understandable to this broad readership. Although assuming few mathematical pre-requisites, the standard of mathematical rigour is not compromised. The material covered includes the standard core of categories; functors; natural transformations; equivalence; limits and colimits; functor categories; representables; Yoneda's lemma; adjoints; monads. An extra topic of cartesian closed categories and the lambda-calculus is also provided - a must for computer scientists, logicians and linguists! This Second Edition contains numerous revisions to the original text, including expanding the exposition, revising and elaborating the proofs, providing additional diagrams, correcting typographical errors and, finally, adding an entirely new section on monoidal categories. Nearly a hundred new exercises have also been added, many with solutions, to make the book more useful as a course text and for self-study.

Simplicity Theory

Author: Byunghan Kim
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191511587
Size: 35.95 MB
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Model theory, a major branch of mathematical logic, plays a key role connecting logic and other areas of mathematics such as algebra, geometry, analysis, and combinatorics. Simplicity theory, a subject of model theory, studies a class of mathematical structures, called simple. The class includes all stable structures (vector spaces, modules, algebraically closed fields, differentially closed fields, and so on), and also important unstable structures such as the random graph, smoothly approximated structures, pseudo-finite fields, ACFA and more. Simplicity theory supplies the uniform model theoretic points of views to such structures in addition to their own mathematical analyses. This book starts with an introduction to the fundamental notions of dividing and forking, and covers up to the hyperdefinable group configuration theorem for simple theories. It collects up-to-date knowledge on simplicity theory and it will be useful to logicians, mathematicians and graduate students working on model theory.