Diet Microbe Interactions In The Gut

Author: Kieran Tuohy
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124079415
Size: 20.18 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology, Diet-Microbe Interactions for Human Health investigates the evidence for a unified disease mechanism working through the gut and its resident microbiota, and linking many inflammation-related chronic diet associated diseases. State of the art post-genomic studies can highlight the important role played by our resident intestinal microbiota in determining human health and disease. Many chronic human diseases associated with modern lifestyles and diets — including those localized to the intestinal tract like inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, and more pervasive systemic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease — are characterized by aberrant profiles of gut bacteria or their metabolites. Many of these diseases have an inflammatory basis, often presenting with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, hinting at persistent and inappropriate activation of inflammatory pathways. Through the presentation and analysis of recent nutrition studies, this book discusses the possible mechanisms underpinning the disease processes associated with these pathologies, with high fat diets appearing to predispose to disease, and biologically active plant components, mainly fiber and polyphenols, appearing to reduce the risk of chronic disease development. One comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of nutrition and diet's effect on gastrointestinal health and disease Experts in nutrition, diet, microbiology and immunology take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approaches Clear presentations by leading researchers of the cellular mechanisms underlying diet, immune response, and gastrointestinal disease help practicing nutritionists and clinicians (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists) map out new areas for clinical research and structuring clinical recommendations

The Human Microbiome Diet And Health

Author: Food Forum
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309265851
Size: 31.50 MB
Format: PDF
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The Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. The Human Microbiome, Diet, and Health: Workshop Summary summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop. Over the two day workshop, several themes covered included: The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease. The microbiome is arguably the most intimate connection that humans have with their external environment, mostly through diet. Given the emerging nature of research on the microbiome, some important methodology issues might still have to be resolved with respect to undersampling and a lack of causal and mechanistic studies. Dietary interventions intended to have an impact on host biology via their impact on the microbiome are being developed, and the market for these products is seeing tremendous success. However, the current regulatory framework poses challenges to industry interest and investment.

Diet Microbiome And Health

Author: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128114924
Size: 70.61 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Diet, Microbiome and Health, Volume 11, in the Handbook of Food Bioengineering series, presents the most up-to-date research to help scientists, researchers and students in the field of food engineering understand the different microbial species we have in our guts, why they are important to human development, immunity and health, and how to use that understanding to further promote research to create healthy food products. In addition, the book provides studies that clearly demonstrate how dietary preferences and social behavior significantly impact the diversity of microbial species in the gut and their numeric values, which may balance health and disease. Highlights research discoveries on how gut microbiota influence and are impacted by health and disease Includes information on and examples of healthy foods Discusses gut microbiota in autism, GI disease, neuropsychiatric disorders, obesity and metabolic disease Explores the barrier function of the gut Examines how food preferences impact gut microbiota

Microbial Endocrinology The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis In Health And Disease

Author: Mark Lyte
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493908979
Size: 41.78 MB
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The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​

Polyphenols In Human Health And Disease

Author: Ronald Ross Watson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012398467X
Size: 16.66 MB
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Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease documents antioxidant actions of polyphenols in protection of cells and cell organelles, critical for understanding their health-promoting actions to help the dietary supplement industry. The book begins by describing the fundamentals of absorption, metabolism and bioavailability of polyphenols, as well as the effect of microbes on polyphenol structure and function and toxicity. It then examines the role of polyphenols in the treatment of chronic disease, including vascular and cardiac health, obesity and diabetes therapy, cancer treatment and prevention, and more. Explores neuronal protection by polyphenol metabolites and their application to medical care Defines modulation of enzyme actions to help researchers see and study polyphenols’ mechanisms of action, leading to clinical applications Includes insights on polyphenols in brain and neurological functions to apply them to the wide range of aging diseases

The Gut Brain Axis

Author: Niall Hyland
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128025441
Size: 22.38 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota examines the potential for microbial manipulation as a therapeutic avenue in central nervous system disorders in which an altered microbiota has been implicated, and explores the mechanisms, sometimes common, by which the microbiota may contribute to such disorders. Focuses on specific areas in which the microbiota has been implicated in gut-brain communication Examines common mechanisms and pathways by which the microbiota may influence brain and behavior Identifies novel therapeutic strategies targeted toward the microbiota in the management of brain activity and behavior

Insights Into Microbe Microbe Interactions In Human Microbial Ecosystems Strategies To Be Competitive

Author: Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288945052X
Size: 71.45 MB
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All parts of our body having communication with the external environment such as the skin, vagina, the respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract are colonized by a specific microbial community. The colon is by far the most densely populated organ in the human body. The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. These microbial ecosystems regulate important functions of the host, and their functionality and the balance among the diverse microbial populations is essential for the maintenance of a “healthy status”. The impressive development in recent years of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods have made possible to determine the gut microbiome composition. This, together with the application of other high throughput omic techniques and the use of gnotobiotic animals has greatly improved our knowledge of the microbiota acting as a whole. In spite of this, most members of the human microbiota are largely unknown and remain still uncultured. The final functionality of the microbiota is depending not only on nutrient availability and environmental conditions, but also on the interrelationships that the microorganisms inhabiting the same ecological niche are able to establish with their partners, or with their potential competitors. Therefore, in such a competitive environment microorganisms have had to develop strategies allowing them to cope, adapt, or cooperate with their neighbors, which may imply notable changes at metabolic, physiological and genetic level. The main aim of this Research Topic was to contribute to better understanding complex interactions among microorganisms residing in human microbial habitats.

Mechanisms Underlying Host Microbiome Interactions In Pathophysiology Of Human Diseases

Author: Jun Sun
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 149397534X
Size: 77.28 MB
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Only recently have we begun to appreciate the role of microbiome in health and disease. Environmental factors and change of life style including diet significantly shape human microbiome that in turn appears to modify gut barrier function affecting nutrient & electrolyte absorption and inflammation. Approaches that can reverse the gut dysbiosis represent as reasonable and novel strategies for restoring the balance between host and microbes. In the book, we offer summary and discussion on the advances in understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of microbial host interactions in human diseases. We will not only discuss intestinal bacterial community, but also viruses, fungi and oral microbiome. Microbiome studies will facilitate diagnosis, functional studies, drug development and personalized medicine. Thus, this book will further highlight the microbiome in the context of health and disease, focusing on mechanistic concepts that underlie the complex relationships between host and microbes.

Health And The Gut

Author: William Olds
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498701264
Size: 17.16 MB
Format: PDF
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The study of the intestinal ecosystem of bacteria in the human gut—the gut microbiome—is a new field that is rapidly evolving. This book serves as an introduction to some of the new and exciting research that is being done in this field. Included are chapters that examine the following: • Gut microbiome’s roles in the pathogenesis of obesity and autoimmune disease • The effect of nutrition on the richness of the microbial community • The stability of the microbiome to various stressors • Emerging ways to diagnose diseases using the microbiome • Exciting prospects for using these microbes to cure disease This easily accessible reference volume offers a comprehensive guide to this relatively new field of study. Edited by a researcher from Yale University, Health and the Gut: The Emerging Role of Intestinal Microbiota in Disease and Therapeutics is an authoritative and easy-to-use reference, ideal for both researchers in the field and those who wish to gain more information about the impact of gut microbiota on human health.

The Human Microbiota And Chronic Disease

Author: Luigi Nibali
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118982878
Size: 23.54 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Microbiota-associated pathology can be a direct result of changes in general bacterial composition, such as might be found in periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis, and/or as the result of colonization and/or overgrowth of so called keystone species. The disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota, or dysbiosis, plays an integral role in human health and human disease. The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease: Dysbioses as a Cause of Human Pathology discusses the role of the microbiota in maintaining human health. The text introduces the reader to the biology of microbial dysbiosis and its potential role in both bacterial disease and in idiopathic chronic disease states. Divided into five sections, the text delineates the concept of the human bacterial microbiota with particular attention being paid to the microbiotae of the gut, oral cavity and skin. A key methodology for exploring the microbiota, metagenomics, is also described. The book then shows the reader the cellular, molecular and genetic complexities of the bacterial microbiota, its myriad connections with the host and how these can maintain tissue homeostasis. Chapters then consider the role of dysbioses in human disease states, dealing with two of the commonest bacterial diseases of humanity – periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis. The composition of some, if not all microbiotas can be controlled by the diet and this is also dealt with in this section. The discussion moves on to the major ‘idiopathic’ diseases afflicting humans, and the potential role that dysbiosis could play in their induction and chronicity. The book then concludes with the therapeutic potential of manipulating the microbiota, introducing the concepts of probiotics, prebiotics and the administration of healthy human faeces (faecal microbiota transplantation), and then hypothesizes as to the future of medical treatment viewed from a microbiota-centric position. Provides an introduction to dysbiosis, or a disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota Explains how microbiota-associated pathology and other chronic diseases can result from changes in general bacterial composition Explores the relationship humans have with their microbiota, and its significance in human health and disease Covers host genetic variants and their role in the composition of human microbial biofilms, integral to the relationship between human health and human disease Authored and edited by leaders in the field, The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease will be an invaluable resource for clinicians, pathologists, immunologists, cell and molecular biologists, biochemists, and system biologists studying cellular and molecular bases of human diseases.