Ecotones Between Forest And Grassland

Author: Randall W. Myster
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461437970
Size: 79.84 MB
Format: PDF
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Ecotones are dynamic over-lapping boundary areas where major terrestrial biomes meet. As past studies have shown, and as the chapters in this book will illustrate, their structure, size, and scope have changed considerably over the millennia, expanding and shrinking as climate and/or other driving conditions, also changed. Today, however, many of them are changing at a rate not seen for a long time, perhaps largely due to climate change and other human-induced factors. Indeed ecotones are more sensitive to climate change than the biomes on either side, and thus may serve as critical early indicators of future climate change. As ecotones change, they also redefine the limits of the biomes on either side by altering their distributions of species because, in addition to their own endemic species, any ecotone will also have species from both adjoining biomes. Consequently, they may also be places of high levels of species interaction, serving as active evolutionary laboratories, which generate new species that then migrate back into adjacent biomes. Ecotones Between Forest and Grassland explores how these ecotones have changed in the past, how they are changing today, and how they are likely to change in the future. The book includes chapters from around the world with a special focus on South American and Neotropical ecotones.

Landscape Boundaries

Author: Andrew J. Hansen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461228042
Size: 60.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The emergence of landscape ecology during the 1980s represents an impor tant maturation of ecological theory. Once enamored with the conceptual beauty of well-balanced, homogeneous ecosystems, ecologists now assert that much of the essence of ecological systems lies in their lumpiness. Patches with differing properties and behaviors lie strewn across the land scape, products of the complex interactions of climate, disturbance, and biotic processes. It is the collective behavior of this patchwork of eco systems that drives pattern and process of the landscape. is not an end point This realization of the importance of patch dynamics in itself, however. Rather, it is a passage to a new conceptual framework, the internal workings of which remain obscure. The next tier of questions includes: What are the fundamental pieces that compose a landscape? How are these pieces bounded? To what extent do these boundaries influence communication and interaction among patches of the landscape? Will con sideration of the interactions among landscape elements help us to under stand the workings of landscapes? At the core of these questions lies the notion of the ecotone, a term with a lineage that even predates ecosystem. Late in the nineteenth century, F. E. Clements realized that the transition zones between plant communi ties had properties distinct from either of the adjacent communities. Not until the emergence of patch dynamics theory, however, has central signif icance of the ecotone concept become apparent.


Author: Marjorie Holland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461596866
Size: 67.52 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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We live in a changing world; one in which there is much concern and discussion about the topics of global change, loss of biodiversity, and increasing threats to the sustainability of ecosystems. The effects these changes may have on the environment have lead governments and sCientists to make predictions as to how soon changes might occur, where, and with what impact for large and small regions of the Earth. Along with this concern for change in various regions has come the need to understand the role of boundaries between these regions and between landscape elements. Much previous ecological research has dealt with processes within relatively homogeneous landscape units or even the collective characteristics of a composite landscape. Now, however, there is an appreciation that abiotic and biotic components move across heterogeneous landscapes and that the boundaries between these units take on important control functions in this dynamic spatial system. Furthermore, landscape boundaries (or ecotones) are important not only in satisfying life-cycle needs of many organisms, but generally are characterized by high biological diversity.

Biodiversity In Land Inland Water Ecotones

Author: J. B. Lachavanne
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9789231033520
Size: 39.70 MB
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Philosophers, writers and scientists, from cell biologists to ecologists, have long recognized the special nature of boundaries and interface areas of all kinds. Among ecologists in particular, there has been an upsurge in interest in the sensitive boundary areas of interaction between ecosystems, which are called 'ecotones' and which are often characterized by higher biological diversity than adjacent areas.

Environmental Information Management And Analysis

Author: W K Michener
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780748401239
Size: 79.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Most environmental studies are based upon data collected at fine spatial scales plots, sediments, cores, etc.. Furthermore, temporal scales of these studies have been relatively short days, weeks, months and few studies have exceeded three years duration the typical funding cycle.; Despite this history, environmental scientists are now being called upon to extrapolate findings from "plot-level" studies to broader spatial scales and from short-term studies to longer temporal scales, up to decades for questions related to long-term processes such as global warming and the rise in sea level.; The complex questions being addressed internationally require that scientists take advantage of new technologies including remote sensing, geographic information systems GIS, and powerful climatic and environmental simulation models. As more environmental scientists begin to work at these broader spatial and temporal scales, and to utilize many of the newer technologies, they are recognising a whole new class of problems.; This book aims to address the most pertinent issues, and includes a comprehensive review of selected topics, case studies, and theoretical discussions, divided into seven sections each preceded by a brief introduction.

Assessing The Impacts Of Climate Change On Natural Resource Systems

Author: Kenneth D. Frederick
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401102074
Size: 42.57 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume characterizes the current state of natural science and socioeconomic modeling of the impacts of climate change and current climate variability on forests, grasslands, and water. It identifies what can be done currently with impact assessments and suggests how to undertake such assessments. Impediments to linking biophysical and socioeconomic models into integrated assessments for policy purposes are identified, and recommendations for future research activities to improve the state of the art and remove these impediments to model integration are provided. This book is for natural and social scientists with an interest in the impacts of climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their socioeconomic impacts, and policy makers interested in understanding the status of current assessment capabilities and in identifying priority areas for future research.