Engineering Tools For Environmental Risk Management

Author: Katalin Gruiz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315778777
Size: 46.46 MB
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Chemical substances, physical agents and built structures exhibit various types of hazard due to their inherent toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, reprotoxic and sensitizing character or damaging to the immune and hormone system. The first steps in managing an environment contaminated by chemical substances are characterization of hazards and quantification of their risks. Chemical models — using only analytical data — are still the most widely used applications for assessing potential adverse effects and the fate and behavior of chemicals in the environment. Chemical models rely on the assumption that the adverse effect is proportional to the concentration, which in most cases is incorrect. In this volume, other models such as biological and ecological or regression models are discussed in detail and compared. Environmental risk management has two subsections: risk assessment and risk reduction. Environmental risk, to a large extent, arises from the adverse effects of chemicals and contaminated land; that is why measuring and testing these effects plays a key role in risk management. “Environmental Toxicology” deals with direct measurement of adverse effects of pure chemicals or environmental samples. This book has therefore been created specifically for engineers and gives a general overview of environmental toxicology. It provides an overview of hundreds of standardized and nonstandardized, generic and site-specific, conventional and innovative, animal and alternative test methods, and demonstrates how to apply these results to the regulation and management of environmental risk. In addition to human, aquatic and terrestrial methods for measuring toxicity, new trends in environmental analytics and the integration and complementary use of chemical analyses and the testing of effects are described. Bioavailability and accessibility as key parameters are detailed and the interactive and dynamic characterization of contaminants in soil is introduced. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation and interpretation of environmental fate and adverse effect data as well as the simulation of environmental processes and effects in microcosms and mesocosms.

Engineering Tools For Environmental Risk Management

Author: Katalin Gruiz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1138001546
Size: 62.27 MB
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This is the first volume of the five-volume book series “Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management”, dealing with the following topics: • types and management of environmental deterioration, particularly pollution; • environmental toxicology as a versatile tool in monitoring and risk management; • risk assessment of chemical substances and contaminated land; • risk reduction measures, focusing on bio- and ecotechnologies; • case studies demonstrating the interaction between regulation, management and engineering and the individual application of engineering tools. The book series focuses on the state of knowledge concerning the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management, decision making and legislation. This first volume provides an overview of the behavior and function of the healthy environment and the capacity of the ecosystem to serve mankind and to compensate for adverse changes. The prime causes of these changes are production and use of chemical substances, abandoned and contaminated land, intensive agriculture, mining and the complex problem of waste. The first volume establishes the foundation of the holistic approach used in a progressive environmental protection by: • striking a balance between nature’s needs and engineering capabilities; • understanding the interaction between regulation, management and engineering; • applying novel technologies and innovative scientifi c and engineering tools. The aggregated information and knowledge disseminated in this volume provides a broad perspective for engineers to adjust their tools to the best management practices and for managers and decision makers to fi nd synergy between their goals and existing engineering solutions. This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.

Engineering Tools For Environmental Risk Management

Author: Katalin Gruiz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317697456
Size: 26.78 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This is the third volume of the five-volume book series “Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management”. The book series deals with the following topics: • Environmental deterioration and pollution, management of environmental problems • Environmental toxicology – a tool for managing chemical substances and contaminated environment • Assessment and monitoring tools, risk assessment • Risk reduction measures and technologies • Case studies for demonstration of the application of engineering tools The authors aim to describe interactions and options in risk management by providing a broad scientific overview of the environment, its human uses and the associated local, regional and global environmental problems; interpreting the holistic approach used in solving environmental protection issues; striking a balance between nature’s needs and engineering capabilities; understanding interactions between regulation, management and engineering; obtaining information about novel technologies and innovative engineering tools. This third volume provides an overview on the basic principles, concepts, practices and tools of environmental monitoring and contaminated site assessment. The volume focuses on those engineering tools that enable integrated site assessment and decision making and ensure an efficient control of the environment. Some topics supporting sustainable land use and efficient environmental management are listed below: • Efficient management and regulation of contaminated land and the environment; • Early warning and environmental monitoring; • Assessment of contaminated land: the best practices; • Environmental sampling; • Risk characterization and contaminated matrix assessment; • Integrated application of physical, chemical, biological, ecological and (eco) toxicological characterization methods; • Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) and decision making; • Online analyzers, electrodes and biosensors for assessment and monitoring of waters.; • In situ and real-time measurement tools for soil and contaminated sites; • Rapid on-site methods and contaminant and toxicity assessment kits; • Engineering tools from omics technologies, microsensors to heavy machinery; • Dynamic characterization of subsurface soil and groundwater using membrane interface probes, optical and X-ray fl uorescence and ELCAD wastewater characterization; • Geochemical modeling: methods and applications; • Environmental assessment using cyclodextrins. This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.

Environmental Risk Assessment And Management From A Landscape Perspective

Author: Lawrence A. Kapustka
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470593011
Size: 35.41 MB
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An important guide to assessing and managing the environment from a landscape perspective Ecological relationships are nested within the landscape. Identifying the relevant spatial and temporal scales is critical for an effective understanding of ecological functions that human societies depend upon. Moreover, human encroachment into natural areas, or changes in climate, can alter spatial relationships, which in turn can negatively affect vital plant and wildlife patterns—and weaken economic structures needed to sustain human societies. This book is the first to combine multiple disciplines into one cohesive strategy to study these crucial connections, and looks toward building a social paradigm that embraces the dynamics of ecological systems. This book: Integrates landscape ecology, environmental risk assessment, valuation of ecological goods and services, and environmental management decision processes into one single source Includes chapters on quantitative measures, Bayesian modeling,¿economic analysis, and sustainable landscapes Covers marine, forest, agricultural, and pharmaceutical risk assessment Has a chapter on predicting climate change risk to ecosystems Has a companion ftp site with color graphics, animations, and risk assessment tools With material that is accessible across all knowledge levels, Environmental Risk Assessment and Management from a Landscape Perspective moves beyond looking solely at chemical contaminants to diagnose environmental threats, and aims to accomplish practical risk assessment in a manner that supports long-term sustainable management.

Environmental Contaminants

Author: Daniel Vallero
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080470351
Size: 36.85 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Environmental Contaminants serves as a tool for environmental professionals to produce technically sound and reproducible scientific evidence. It identifies ways to clean up environmental problems in air, water, soil, sediment and living systems. Ethical issues, environmental management, and professionalism, and environmental economic problems are illustrated to assist the reader in understanding and applying quantitative analysis of environmental problems. Real life solutions for practicing environmental professionals. Example problems, sidebars, and case studies to illustrate ethical issues, environmental economic problems, and environmental management. Explanation of scientific principles and concepts needed for risk assessment, waste management, contaminant transport, environmental hydrogeology, and environmental engineering & chemistry. A fully supportive glossary, appendices and tables throughout the text contain physical, chemical and biological resources necessary for all environmental practitioners.

Quantitative Environmental Risk Analysis For Human Health

Author: Robert A. Fjeld
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470096195
Size: 40.73 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A COMPREHENSIVE TEXTBOOK AND REFERENCE FOR QUANTITATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ANALYSIS FOR BOTH CHEMICAL AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS Environmental risk analysis is complex and interdisciplinary; this book explains the fundamental concepts and analytical methods in each essential discipline. With an emphasis on concepts and applications of quantitative tools plus coverage of analysis of both chemical and radioactive contaminants, this is a comprehensive resource. After an introduction and an overview of the basics of environmental modeling, the book covers key elements in environmental risk analysis methodology, including: Release assessment and source characterization Migration of contaminants in various media, including surface water, groundwater, the atmosphere, and the food chain Exposure assessment Basic human toxicology and dose-response Risk characterization, including dose-response modeling and analysis Risk management process and methods Risk communication and public participation This reference also relates risk analysis to current environmental laws and regulations. An ideal textbook for graduate students and upper-level undergraduates in various engineering and quantitative science disciplines, especially civil and environmental engineering, it is also a great reference for practitioners in industry, environmental consulting firms, and regulatory agencies.

Nanotechnology

Author: Jo Anne Shatkin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351832689
Size: 45.18 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Should you adopt nanotechnology? If you have already adopted it, what do you need to know? What are the risks? Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies are revolutionizing the ways we treat disease, produce energy, manufacture products, and attend to our daily wants and needs. To continue to capture the promise of these transformative products, however, we need to ask critical questions about the broader impacts of nanotechnology on society and the environment. Exploring these questions, the second edition of Nanotechnology: Health and Environmental Risks gives you the latest tools to understand the risks of nanotechnology and make better decisions about using it. Examining the state of the science, the book discusses what is known, and what still needs to be understood, about nanotechnology risk. It looks at the uses of nanotechnology for energy, industry, medicine, technology, and consumer applications and explains how to determine whether there is risk—even when there is little reliable evidence—and how to manage it. Contributors cover a wide range of topics, including: Current concerns, among them perceived risks and the challenges of evaluating emerging technology A historical perspective on product safety and chemicals policy The importance of being proactive about identifying and managing health and environmental risks during product development How the concepts of sustainability and life cycle assessment can guide nanotechnology product development Methods for evaluating nanotechnology risks, including screening approaches and research How to manage risk when working with nanoscale materials at the research stage and in occupational environments What international organizations are doing to address risk issues How risk assessment can inform environmental decision making Written in easy-to-understand language, without sacrificing complexity or scientific accuracy, this book offers a wide-angle view of nanotechnology and risk. Supplying cutting-edge approaches and insight, it explains what types of risks could exist and what you can do to address them. What’s New in This Edition Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field, new literature, and policy developments A new chapter on nanotechnology risk communication, including insights into risk perceptions and the mental models people use to evaluate technological risks An emphasis on developing nanotechnology products that are sustainable in the long term Advances in the understanding of nanomaterials toxicity Cutting-edge research on occupational exposure to nanoparticles Changes in the international landscape of organizations working on the environmental, health, and safety aspects of nanotechnologies

Science And Judgment In Risk Assessment

Author: Committee on Risk Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutants
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309556228
Size: 53.55 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The public depends on competent risk assessment from the federal government and the scientific community to grapple with the threat of pollution. When risk reports turn out to be overblown--or when risks are overlooked--public skepticism abounds. This comprehensive and readable book explores how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can improve its risk assessment practices, with a focus on implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. With a wealth of detailed information, pertinent examples, and revealing analysis, the volume explores the "default option" and other basic concepts. It offers two views of EPA operations: The first examines how EPA currently assesses exposure to hazardous air pollutants, evaluates the toxicity of a substance, and characterizes the risk to the public. The second, more holistic, view explores how EPA can improve in several critical areas of risk assessment by focusing on cross-cutting themes and incorporating more scientific judgment. This comprehensive volume will be important to the EPA and other agencies, risk managers, environmental advocates, scientists, faculty, students, and concerned individuals.

Kirk Othmer Chemical Technology And The Environment 2 Volume Set

Author:
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470105402
Size: 72.33 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The two-volume reference work Chemical Technology and the Environment provides readers with knowledge on contemporary issues in environmental pollution, prevention and control, as well as regulatory, health and safety issues as related to chemical technology. It introduces and expands the knowledge on emerging "green" materials and processes and "greener" energy technology, as well as more general concepts and methodology including sustainable development and chemistry and green chemistry. Based on Wiley's renowned, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, this compact reference features the same breadth and quality of coverage and clarity of presentation found in the original.