Establishing The Supremacy Of European Law

Author: Karen J. Alter
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199260997
Size: 76.53 MB
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How did the European Community's legal system become the most effective international legal system in the world? This book starts where traditional legal accounts leave off, explaining why national judiciaries took on a role enforcing European law supremacy against their governments. It also shows why national governments accepted an institutional change that greatly compromised national sovereignty.

Establishing The Supremacy Of European Law

Author: Karen J. Alter
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199260997
Size: 31.53 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 6016
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How did the European Community's legal system become the most effective international legal system in the world? This book starts where traditional legal accounts leave off, explaining why national judiciaries took on a role enforcing European law supremacy against their governments. It also shows why national governments accepted an institutional change that greatly compromised national sovereignty.

Establishing The Supremacy Of European Law

Author: Karen J. Alter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199243471
Size: 62.90 MB
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The most effective international legal system in the world exists in Europe. It works much like a domestic system, where violations of the law are brought to court, legal decisions are respected, and the autonomous influence of law and legal rulings extends into the political process itself. The European legal system was not always so effective at influencing state behavior and compelling compliance. Indeed the European Community's original legal system was intentionally designed to have very limited monitoring and enforcement capabilities. The European Court of Justice transformed the original system through bold and controversial legal decisions declaring the direct effect and supremacy of European law over national law. This book starts where traditional legal accounts leave off. Karen Alter explains why national courts took on a role enforcing European law against their governments, and why national governments accepted an institutional change that greatly compromised national sovereignty. She then shows how harnessing national courts to funnel private litigant challenges through to the ECJ and enforce European law supremacy contributed fundamentally to the emergence of an international rule of law in Europe, where national governments are held accountable to their European legal obligations, and where states actually avoid policies that might conflict with European law.

The New Terrain Of International Law

Author: Karen J. Alter
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400848687
Size: 77.21 MB
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In 1989, when the Cold War ended, there were six permanent international courts. Today there are more than two dozen that have collectively issued over thirty-seven thousand binding legal rulings. The New Terrain of International Law charts the developments and trends in the creation and role of international courts, and explains how the delegation of authority to international judicial institutions influences global and domestic politics. The New Terrain of International Law presents an in-depth look at the scope and powers of international courts operating around the world. Focusing on dispute resolution, enforcement, administrative review, and constitutional review, Karen Alter argues that international courts alter politics by providing legal, symbolic, and leverage resources that shift the political balance in favor of domestic and international actors who prefer policies more consistent with international law objectives. International courts name violations of the law and perhaps specify remedies. Alter explains how this limited power--the power to speak the law--translates into political influence, and she considers eighteen case studies, showing how international courts change state behavior. The case studies, spanning issue areas and regions of the world, collectively elucidate the political factors that often intervene to limit whether or not international courts are invoked and whether international judges dare to demand significant changes in state practices.

The European Court S Political Power

Author: Karen Alter
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191615692
Size: 30.27 MB
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Karen Alter's work on the European Court of Justice heralded a new level of sophistication in the political analysis of the controversial institution, through its combination of legal understanding and active engagement with theoretical questions. The European Court's Political Power assembles the most important of Alter's articles written over a fourteen year span, adding an original new introduction and a conclusion that takes an overview of the Court's development and current concerns. Together the articles provide insight into the historical and political contours of the ECJ's influence on European politics, explaining how and why the impact of an institution can vary so greatly over time and access different issues. The book starts with the European Coal and Steel Community, where the ECJ was largely unable to facilitate greater member state respect for ECSC rules. Alter then shows how legal actors orchestrated an activist transformation of the European legal system, with the critical aid of jurist advocacy movements, and via the co-optation of national courts. The transformation of the European legal system wrested control from member states over the meaning of European law, but the ECJ continues to have varying influence across different issues. Alter explains that the differing influence of the ECJ comes from the varied extent to which sub- and supra-national actors turn to it to achieve political objectives. Looking beyond the European experience, the book includes four chapters that put the ECJ into a comparative perspective, examining the extent to which the ECJ experience is a unique harbinger of the future role international courts may play in international and comparative politics.

The Law And Politics Of The Andean Tribunal Of Justice

Author: Karen J. Alter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199680787
Size: 26.64 MB
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The Andean Pact was founded in 1969 to build a common market in South America. Andean leaders copied the institutional and treaty design of the European Community, and in the 1970s, member states decided to add a tribunal, again turning to the European Community as its model. Since its first ruling in 1987, the Andean Tribunal of Justice has exercised authority over the countries which are members of the Andean Community: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (formerly also Venezuela). It is now the third most active international court in the world, used by governments and private actors to protect their rights and interests in the region. This book investigates how a region with weak legal institutions developed an effective international rule of law, why the Tribunal was able to induce widespread respect for Andean intellectual property rules but not other areas governed by regional integration rules, and what the Tribunal's experience means for comparable international courts. It also assesses the Andean experience in order to reconsider the European Community system, exploring why the law and politics of integration in Europe and the Andes followed different trajectories. It finally provides a detailed analysis of the key factors associated with effective supranational adjudication. This book collects together previously published material by two leading interdisciplinary scholars of international law and politics, and is enhanced by three original chapters further reflecting on the Andean legal order.

The State Of The European Union 6

Author: Tanja A. Börzel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199257409
Size: 70.40 MB
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The contributors to this volume take the dynamic interaction between law, politics and society as a starting point to think critically about recent developments and future innovations in European integration and EU studies.

The Death Of Treaty Supremacy

Author: David L. Sloss
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199364028
Size: 31.58 MB
Format: PDF
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This book provides the first detailed history of the Constitution's treaty supremacy rule. It describes a process of invisible constitutional change. The traditional supremacy rule provided that all treaties supersede conflicting state laws; it precluded state governments from violating U.S. treaty obligations. Before 1945, treaty supremacy and self-execution were independent doctrines. Supremacy governed the relationship between treaties and state law. Self-execution governed the division of power over treaty implementation between Congress and the President. In 1945, the U.S. ratified the UN Charter, which obligates nations to promote human rights "for all without distinction as to race." In 1950, a California court applied the Charter's human rights provisions and the traditional treaty supremacy rule to invalidate a state law that discriminated against Japanese nationals. The implications were shocking: the decision implied that the United States had effectively abrogated Jim Crow laws throughout the South by ratifying the UN Charter. In response, conservatives mobilized support for a constitutional amendment, known as the Bricker Amendment, to abolish the treaty supremacy rule. The amendment never passed, but Bricker's supporters achieved their goals through de facto constitutional change. The de facto Bricker Amendment created a novel exception to the treaty supremacy rule for non-self-executing (NSE) treaties. The exception permits state governments to violate NSE treaties without authorization from the federal political branches. The death of treaty supremacy has significant implications for U.S. foreign policy and for U.S. compliance with its treaty obligations.

The Principle Of Loyalty In Eu Law

Author: Marcus Klamert
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199683123
Size: 22.48 MB
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The principle of loyalty requires the EU and its Member States to co-operate sincerely towards the implementation of EU law. Under the principle, the European courts have developed significant public law duties on States to deepen the reach of EU law. This is the first full-length analysis of the loyalty principle and its legal implications.