Evolution Of Visual And Non Visual Pigments

Author: David M. Hunt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1461443555
Size: 42.25 MB
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Photopigments are molecules that react to light and mediate a number of processes and behaviours in animals. Visual pigments housed within the photoreceptors of the eye, such as the rods and cones in vertebrates are the best known, however, visual pigments are increasingly being found in other tissues, including other retinal cells, the skin and the brain. Other closely related molecules from the G protein family, such as melanopsin mediate light driven processes including circadian rhythmicity and pupil constriction. This Volume examines the enormous diversity of visual pigments and traces the evolution of these G protein coupled receptors in both invertebrates and vertebrates in the context of the visual and non-visual demands dictated by a species’ ecological niche.

Evolution And Senses

Author: Yoshinori Shichida
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431542221
Size: 57.40 MB
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This book focuses on sensing and the evolution of animals. Using the five senses (visual, auditory, and olfactory perception, and taste and touch), animals can receive environmental stimuli and respond to them. Changes in these sensitivities might cause changes in aspects of animals’ lives such as habitat, activity timing, and diet—and vice versa. Recent advances in genome and molecular analysis enable us to investigate certain changes in the receptors or mechanisms involved in sensing and provide clues for understanding the evolution of animals related to those changes. The first chapter deals with the molecular evolution of opsins. In addition to the well-known function of opsins as visual receptors, opsins can be related to non-visual photoreception such as photoentrainment of circadian rhythm, photoperiodism, and background adaptation. Molecular phylogenic studies reveal that all opsin genes have evolved from one ancient opsin gene. The evaluation of the functions of each extant opsin protein based on the molecular features enables us to predict the molecular evolution and diversification of opsins during the evolution of animals. These studies shed light on which amino-acid substitutions cause the functional diversification of opsins and how they have influenced the evolution of animals. The second chapter has to do with bitter taste perception, a key detection mechanism against the ingestion of bioactive substances. Genetic and behavioral evidence reveal the existence of "non-taster" Japanese macaques for specific bitter compounds, which originated in a restricted region of Japan. This finding might provide a clue for elucidating the ecological, evolutionary, and neurobiological aspects of bitter taste perception of primates. The third chapter presents an extreme example of the evolution of olfaction, namely, that fully aquatic amniotes have generally reduced their olfactory capacity considerably compared to their terrestrial relatives. Interestingly, the remaining olfactory abilities are quite different among three fully aquatic amniotes investigated: toothed whales have no nervous system structures that mediate olfaction, but baleen whales can smell in air, and it has been suggested that sea snakes smell underwater.

Photoprocesses Photoreceptors And Evolution

Author: Jerome Jay Wolken
Size: 67.50 MB
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The environment; Photosensitivity and pigments; The emergence of the cell and its organelles; Photosynthesis; Phototropism; Phototaxis; Invertebrate eyes; Protochordates; The vertebrate eye and the retina; The vertebrate visual pigments; The invertebrate visual pigments; The visusl photoreceptors and pigments in evolution; Photoperiodic phenomena and memory; Bioluminescence.

Visual Transduction And Non Visual Light Perception

Author: Joyce Tombran-Tink
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781597453745
Size: 76.88 MB
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This book reveals not only how the eye evolved into an organ of vision, but also describes how molecular mechanisms of key molecules operate in the phototransduction cascade. In this groundbreaking text, experts also explain mechanisms for sensing radiation outside of the visible wavelengths. Comprehensive and penetrating, the book brings together the mechanisms of the visual transduction cascade and is an invaluable text for everyone conducting research in the visual system.

The Primate Visual System

Author: Jan Kremers
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470868104
Size: 72.20 MB
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Many recent developments in the field in recording, staining, genetic and stimulation techniques, in vivo, and in vitro have significantly increased the amount of available data on the primate visual system. Written with contributions from key neurobiologists in the field, The Primate Visual System will provide the reader with the latest developments, examining the structure, function and evolution of the primate visual system. The book takes a comparative approach as a basis for studying the physiological properties of primate vision and examines the phylogenetic relationship between the visual systems of different primate species. Taken from a neurobiologist’s perspective this book provides a unique approach to the study of primate vision as a basis for further study into the human visual system. Altogether an important overview of the structure, function and evolution of the primate visual system from a neurobiologist’s perspective, written specifically for higher level undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in neuroscience, physiology, optics/ visual science, as well as a valuable read to researchers new to the field.

Rhodopsins And Phototransduction

Author: Novartis Foundation
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470515708
Size: 77.73 MB
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Brings together key new results of interdisciplinary collaborations among various research fields on rhodopsin including the photoreceptive mechanism of rhodopsins, the molecular mechanism of the visual transduction process, visual processes in the retina and other transduction processes in the retina and brain. The structures of the rhodopsin molecule are studied in the fields of protein chemistry, molecular biology, organic chemistry and structural biology; the ultra fast reactions of the retinal protein are studied in physics, biophysics, physical chemistry, organic chemistry and photobiology; the phototransduction in retinal proteins and visual cells are studied in biophysics, biochemistry, biophysical chemistry and photobiology; and the localization in the tissues is studied in anatomy and histochemistry. The diversity of visual systems in various animals is studied in zoology and comparative biochemistry.

Evolution S Witness

Author: Ivan R. Schwab
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195369742
Size: 37.45 MB
Format: PDF
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"The evolution of the eye spans 3.75 billion years from single cell organisms with eyespots to Metazoa with superb camera style eyes. At least ten different ocular models have evolved independently into myriad optical and physiological masterpieces. The story of the eye reveals evolution's greatest triumph and sweetest gift. This book describes its journey"--Provided by publisher.

Sensory Ecology Behaviour And Evolution

Author: Martin Stevens
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191651478
Size: 39.19 MB
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Throughout their lives animals must complete many tasks, including finding food, avoiding predators, attracting mates, and navigating through a complex and dynamic environment. Consequently, they have evolved a staggering array of sensory organs that are fundamental to survival and reproduction and shape much of their evolution and behaviour. Sensory ecology deals with how animals acquire, process, and use information in their lives, and the sensory systems involved. It investigates the type of information that is gathered by animals, how it is used in a range of behaviours, and the evolution of such traits. It deals with both mechanistic questions (e.g. how sensory receptors capture information from the environment, and how the physical attributes of the environment affect information transmission) and functional questions (e.g. the adaptive significance of the information used by the animal to make a decision). Recent research has dealt more explicitly with how sensory systems are involved with and even drive evolutionary change, including the formation of new species. Sensory Ecology, Behaviour, and Evolution provides a broad introduction to sensory ecology across a wide range of taxonomic groups, covering all the various sensory modalities (e.g. sound, visual, chemical, magnetic, and electric) relating to diverse areas spanning anti-predator strategies, foraging, mate choice, navigation and more, with the aim being to illustrate key principles and differences. This accessible textbook is suitable for senior undergraduates, graduate students, and professional academics taking courses or conducting research in sensory ecology/biology, neuroethology, behavioural and evolutionary ecology, communication, and signalling. It will also be of relevance and use to psychologists interested in sensory information and behaviour.

The Visual System Of Fish

Author: Ron Douglas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400904118
Size: 44.63 MB
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A question often asked of those of us who work in the seemingly esoteric field of fish vision is, why? To some of us the answer seems obvious - how many other visual scientists get to dive in a tropical lagoon in the name of science and then are able to eat their subjects for dinner? However, there are better, or at least scientifically more acceptable, reasons for working on the visual system of fish. First, in terms of numbers, fish are by far the most important of all vertebrate classes, probably accounting for over half (c. 22 000 species) of all recognized vertebrate species (Nelson, 1984). Furthermore, many of these are of commercial importance. Secondly, if one of the research aims is to understand the human visual system, animals such as fish can tell us a great deal, since in many ways their visual systems, and specifically their eyes, are similar to our own. This is fortunate, since there are several techniques, such as intracellular retinal recording, which are vital to our understanding of the visual process, that cannot be performed routinely on primates. The cold blooded fish, on the other hand, is an ideal subject for such studies and much of what we know about, for example, the fundamentals of information processing in the retina is based on work carried out on fish (e. g. Svaetichin, 1953).

Photochemistry Of Vision

Author: Herbert J.A. Dartnall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364265066X
Size: 61.89 MB
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Radiation can only affect matter if absorbed by it. Within the broad range of 300-1000 nm, which we call "the visible", light quanta are energetic enough to produce excited electronic states in the atoms and molecules that absorb them. In these states the molecules may have quite different properties from those in their dormant condition, and reactions that would not otherwise occur become possible. About 80 % of the radiant energy emitted by our sun lies in this fertile band, and so long as the sun's surface temperature is maintained at about 6000° C this state of affairs will continue. This and the transparency of our atmosphere and waters have allowed the generation and evolution of life. Before life began the atmosphere probably also transmitted much of the solar short-wave radiation, but with the rise of vegetation a new product - oxygen - appeared and this, by a photochemical reaction in the upper atmosphere, led to the ozone layer that now protects us from the energetic "short-wave" quanta that once, perhaps, took part in the generation of life-molecules. Light is an ideal sensory stimulus. It travels in straight lines at great speed and, consequently, can be made to form an image from which an animal can make "true", continuous and immediate assessments of present and impending events.