Exposure Science

Author: Paul Lioy
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124202381
Size: 43.55 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications provides a concise overview of the field of exposure science, from its origins in sanitation and occupational health, to its exciting involvement with emerging scientific concepts. Written by world-leading experts in the field of exposure science, this book provides all the basic understanding you need to employ the best tools and methods for measurement, analysis, and modeling of exposure. Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications is an invaluable introduction to exposure science for anyone working in the fields of environmental health, risk assessment, toxicology, or epidemiology. Focuses on and highlights the basic fundamentals, scientific goals, theories and tools of exposure science Examines the use of the exposome and eco-exposome concepts within the field of exposure science

Post Vietnam Dioxin Exposure In Agent Orange Contaminated C 123 Aircraft

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309308933
Size: 62.92 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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From 1972 to 1982, approximately 1,500-2,100 US Air Force Reserve personnel trained and worked on C-123 aircraft that had formerly been used to spray herbicides in Vietnam as part of Operation Ranch Hand. After becoming aware that some of the aircraft on which they had worked had previously served this purpose, some of these AF Reservists applied to the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for compensatory coverage under the Agent Orange Act of 1991. The Act provides health care and disability coverage for health conditions that have been deemed presumptively service-related for herbicide exposure during the Vietnam War. The VA denied the applications on the basis that these veterans were ineligible because as non-Vietnam-era veterans or as Vietnam-era veterans without "boots on the ground" service in Vietnam, they were not covered. However, with the knowledge that some air and wipe samples taken between 1979 and 2009 from some of the C-123s used in Operation Ranch Hand showed the presence of agent orange residues, representatives of the C-123 Veterans Association began a concerted effort to reverse VA's position and obtain coverage. At the request of the VA, Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure in Agent Orange-Contaminated C-123 Aircraft evaluates whether or not service in these C-123s could have plausibly resulted in exposures detrimental to the health of these Air Force Reservists. The Institute of Medicine assembled an expert committee to address this question qualitatively, but in a scientific and evidence-based fashion. This report evaluates the reliability of the available information for establishing exposure and addresses and places in context whether any documented residues represent potentially harmful exposure by characterizing the amounts available and the degree to which absorption might be expected. Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure rejects the idea that the dioxin residues detected on interior surfaces of the C-123s were immobile and effectively inaccessible to the Reservists as a source of exposure. Accordingly, this report states with confidence that the Air Force Reservists were exposed when working in the Operation Ranch Hand C-123s and so experienced some increase in their risk of a variety of adverse responses.

A Review Of The Environmental Protection Agency S Science To Achieve Results Research Program

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309458609
Size: 18.68 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Environmental research has driven landmark improvements that led to the protection of human and ecosystem health. Recognizing the value of knowledge generated by environmental research and the ingenuity within academic and nonprofit institutions, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created a program known as Science to Achieve Results, or STAR, in 1995. STAR is EPA’s primary competitive extramural grants program. A Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Science to Achieve Results Research Program assesses the program’s scientific merit, public benefits, and overall contributions in the context of other relevant research and recommends ways to enhance those aspects of the program. This report also considers the conclusions and recommendations of a prior National Research Council review of the STAR program (2003), the STAR program’s research priorities in light of the nation’s environmental challenges, and the effects of recent STAR funding trends on obtaining scientific information needed to protect public health and the environment.

Exposure Science In The 21st Century

Author: Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309264685
Size: 69.85 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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From the use of personal products to our consumption of food, water, and air, people are exposed to a wide array of agents each day--many with the potential to affect health. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy investigates the contact of humans or other organisms with those agents (that is, chemical, physical, and biologic stressors) and their fate in living systems. The concept of exposure science has been instrumental in helping us understand how stressors affect human and ecosystem health, and in efforts to prevent or reduce contact with harmful stressors. In this way exposure science has played an integral role in many areas of environmental health, and can help meet growing needs in environmental regulation, urban and ecosystem planning, and disaster management. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy explains that there are increasing demands for exposure science information, for example to meet needs for data on the thousands of chemicals introduced into the market each year, and to better understand the health effects of prolonged low-level exposure to stressors. Recent advances in tools and technologies--including sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics--have provided the potential for more accurate and comprehensive exposure science data than ever before. This report also provides a roadmap to take advantage of the technologic innovations and strategic collaborations to move exposure science into the future.

Cosmetic Science And Technology Theoretical Principles And Applications

Author: Kazutami Sakamoto
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128020547
Size: 33.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Cosmetic Science and Technology: Theoretical Principles and Applications covers the fundamental aspects of cosmetic science that are necessary to understand material development, formulation, and the dermatological effects that result from the use of these products. The book fulfills this role by offering a comprehensive view of cosmetic science and technology, including environmental and dermatological concerns. As the cosmetics field quickly applies cutting-edge research to high value commercial products that have a large impact in our lives and on the world's economy, this book is an indispensable source of information that is ideal for experienced researchers and scientists, as well as non-scientists who want to learn more about this topic on an introductory level. Covers the science, preparation, function, and interaction of cosmetic products with skin Addresses safety and environmental concerns related to cosmetics and their use Provides a graphical summary with short introductory explanation for each topic Relates product type performance to its main components Describes manufacturing methods of oral care cosmetics and body cosmetics in a systematic manner

Exposure Therapy For Anxiety

Author: Jonathan S. Abramowitz
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 146250969X
Size: 13.63 MB
Format: PDF
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Exposure therapy is the most effective psychological treatment for anxiety, yet many clinicians lack confidence in their ability to implement it effectively while keeping clients engaged. This indispensable book provides guidelines for conducting exposure-based interventions and overcoming common roadblocks. Drawing on cutting-edge theory and research, the authors walk clinicians through assessment and treatment planning and demonstrate a wealth of specific exposure exercises. Chapters are organized around common anxiety triggers that may cut across different diagnoses, making it easier to tailor treatment to each individual's needs. Several reproducible handouts and forms can be downloaded and printed in a convenient 8 1/2" x 11" size.

The Exposome

Author: Gary W Miller
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124172180
Size: 23.80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Exposome: A Primer is the first book dedicated to exposomics, detailing the purpose and scope of this emerging field of study, its practical applications and how it complements a broad range of disciplines. Genetic causes account for up to a third of all complex diseases. (As genomic approaches improve, this is likely to rise.) Environmental factors also influence human disease but, unlike with genetics, there is no standard or systematic way to measure the influence of environmental exposures. The exposome is an emerging concept that hopes to address this, measuring the effects of life-long environmental exposures on health and how these exposures can influence disease. This systematic introduction considers topics of managing and integrating exposome data (including maps, models, computation, and systems biology), "-omics"-based technologies, and more. Both students and scientists in disciplines including toxicology, environmental health, epidemiology, and public health will benefit from this rigorous yet readable overview.

Environmental Epidemiology

Author: Dean Baker
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780198527923
Size: 29.18 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Environmental epidemiology is the study of disease and environmental determinants of disease in humans, for example air pollution, water contamination, pesticides and telephone masts. This book describes the methods of environmental epidemiology and provides practical guidance on how to conduct studies on environmental problems and health effects.

Human Exposure Assessment For Airborne Pollutants

Author: Committee on Advances in Assessing Human Exposure to Airborne Pollutants
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309042844
Size: 31.99 MB
Format: PDF
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Most people in the United States spend far more time indoors than outdoors. Yet, many air pollution regulations and risk assessments focus on outdoor air. These often overlook contact with harmful contaminants that may be at their most dangerous concentrations indoors. A new book from the National Research Council explores the need for strategies to address indoor and outdoor exposures and examines the methods and tools available for finding out where and when significant exposures occur. The volume includes: A conceptual framework and common terminology that investigators from different disciplines can use to make more accurate assessments of human exposure to airborne contaminants. An update of important developments in assessing exposure to airborne contaminants: ambient air sampling and physical chemical measurements, biological markers, questionnaires, time-activity diaries, and modeling. A series of examples of how exposure assessments have been applied--properly and improperly--to public health issues and how the committee's suggested framework can be brought into practice. This volume will provide important insights to improve risk assessment, risk management, pollution control, and regulatory programs.

Principles And Applications Of Radiological Physics E Book

Author: Martin Vosper
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0702046140
Size: 57.74 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Principles and Application of Radiological Physics 6E provides comprehensive and easy-to-follow coverage of the principles and application of physics for both diagnostic and therapeutic radiography students. Regardless of changes in technology and clinical grading, the most important role of the radiographer remains unchanged - ensuring the production of high quality images and optimal treatment. These should be performed with the minimum of radiation hazard to patients, staff and others. An understanding of physics and the basics of radiographic technology is essential to do this effectively. The book covers all the physics and mathematics required by undergraduate diagnostic and therapeutic radiography students, catering for those who do not have a mathematics qualification as well as for those who do. NEW TO THIS EDITION: A focus upon application of physics to reflect current teaching approaches Completely revised structure, leading from science principles to applications New chapters on CT, MRI, ultrasound, PET, RNI, mammography and digital imaging Electronic learning resources for students, hosted on EVOLVE *Strong links between theory and practice throughout *Clear and concise text Focus on application of physics, as well as principles New, updated 2-colour design New Sections - Equipment for X-ray production, The Radiographic Image and Diagnostic Imaging Technologies Electronic learning resources for students support the text