Global Security Engagement

Author: Committee on Strengthening and Expanding the Department of Defense Cooperative Threat Program
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309131065
Size: 19.35 MB
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The government's first Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) programs were created in 1991 to eliminate the former Soviet Union's nuclear, chemical, and other weapons and prevent their proliferation. The programs have accomplished a great deal: deactivating thousands of nuclear warheads, neutralizing chemical weapons, converting weapons facilities for peaceful use, and redirecting the work of former weapons scientists and engineers, among other efforts. Originally designed to deal with immediate post-Cold War challenges, the programs must be expanded to other regions and fundamentally redesigned as an active tool of foreign policy that can address contemporary threats from groups that are that are agile, networked, and adaptable. As requested by Congress, Global Security Engagement proposes how this goal can best be achieved. To meet the magnitude of new security challenges, particularly at the nexus of weapons of mass destruction and terrorism, Global Security Engagement recommends a new, more flexible, and responsive model that will draw on a broader range of partners than current programs have. The White House, working across the Executive Branch and with Congress, must lead this effort.

Biological Engagement Programs Reducing Threats And Strengthening Global Health Security Through Scientific Collaboration

Author: Jeanne M. Fair
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889452735
Size: 35.63 MB
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Biological engagement programs are a set of projects or activities between partner countries that strengthen global health security to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes. Engagement programs are an effective way to work collaboratively towards a common threat reduction goal, usually with a strong focus on strengthening health systems and making the world a safer place. Cooperative programs are built upon trust and sharing of information and resources to increase the capacity and capabilities of partner countries. Biological engagement programs reduce the threat of infectious disease with a focus on pathogens of security concern, such as those pathogens identified by the U.S. Government as Biological Select Agent and Toxins. These programs seek to develop technical or scientific relationships between countries to combat infectious diseases both in humans and animals. Through laboratory biorisk management, diagnostics, pathogen detection, biosurveillance and countermeasure development for infectious diseases, deep relationships are fostered between countries. Biological engagement programs are designed to address dual-use issues in pathogen research by promoting responsible science methodologies and cultures. Scientific collaboration is a core mechanism for engagement programs are designed to strengthen global health security, including prevention of avoidable epidemics; detection of threats as early as possible; and rapid and effective outbreak response. This Research Topic discusses Biological Engagement Programs, highlighting the successes and challenges of these cooperative programs. Articles in this topic outlined established engagement programs as well as described what has been learned from historical cooperative engagement programs not focused on infectious diseases. Articles in this topic highlighted selected research, trainings, and programs in Biological Engagement Programs from around the world. This Topic eBook first delves into Policies and Lessons Learned; then describes Initiatives in Biosafety & Biosecurity; the core of this work documents Cooperative Research Results from the field; then lastly the Topic lays out potential Future Directions to the continued success of the World’s cooperative science in reducing the threat of infectious diseases.

Improving Metrics For The Department Of Defense Cooperative Threat Reduction Program

Author: Committee on Improving Metrics for the Department of Defense
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309222567
Size: 26.97 MB
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The Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program was created in 1991 as a set of support activities assisting the Former Soviet Union states in securing and eliminating strategic nuclear weapons and the materials used to create them. The Program evolved as needs and opportunities changed: Efforts to address biological and chemical threats were added, as was a program aimed at preventing cross-border smuggling of weapons of mass destruction. CTR has traveled through uncharted territory since its inception, and both the United States and its partners have taken bold steps resulting in progress unimagined in initial years. Over the years, much of the debate about CTR on Capitol Hill has concerned the effective use of funds, when the partners would take full responsibility for the efforts, and how progress, impact, and effectiveness should be measured. Directed by Congress, the Secretary of Defense completed a report describing DoD's metrics for the CTR Program (here called the DoD Metrics Report) in September 2010 and, as required in the same law, contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to review the metrics DoD developed and identify possible additional or alternative metrics, if necessary. Improving Metrics for the DoD Cooperative Threat Reduction Program provides that review and advice. Improving Metrics for the DoD Cooperative Threat Reduction Program identifies shortcomings in the DoD Metrics Report and provides recommendations to enhance DoD's development and use of metrics for the CTR Program. The committee wrote this report with two main audiences in mind: Those who are mostly concerned with the overall assessment and advice, and those readers directly involved in the CTR Program, who need the details of the DoD report assessment and of how to implement the approach that the committee recommends.

Improving Metrics For The Department Of Defense Cooperative Threat Reduction Program

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309222583
Size: 67.84 MB
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The Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program was created in 1991 as a set of support activities assisting the Former Soviet Union states in securing and eliminating strategic nuclear weapons and the materials used to create them. The Program evolved as needs and opportunities changed: Efforts to address biological and chemical threats were added, as was a program aimed at preventing cross-border smuggling of weapons of mass destruction. CTR has traveled through uncharted territory since its inception, and both the United States and its partners have taken bold steps resulting in progress unimagined in initial years. Over the years, much of the debate about CTR on Capitol Hill has concerned the effective use of funds, when the partners would take full responsibility for the efforts, and how progress, impact, and effectiveness should be measured. Directed by Congress, the Secretary of Defense completed a report describing DoD's metrics for the CTR Program (here called the DoD Metrics Report) in September 2010 and, as required in the same law, contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to review the metrics DoD developed and identify possible additional or alternative metrics, if necessary. Improving Metrics for the DoD Cooperative Threat Reduction Program provides that review and advice. Improving Metrics for the DoD Cooperative Threat Reduction Program identifies shortcomings in the DoD Metrics Report and provides recommendations to enhance DoD's development and use of metrics for the CTR Program. The committee wrote this report with two main audiences in mind: Those who are mostly concerned with the overall assessment and advice, and those readers directly involved in the CTR Program, who need the details of the DoD report assessment and of how to implement the approach that the committee recommends.

Global Security The Number One Dilemma Of The World Community The Case Of The United States

Author: Jean Cédric Obame Emane
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668646198
Size: 79.90 MB
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Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: A, Atlantic International University, course: Doctor of International Relations with a major in International Security, language: English, abstract: This paper is an attempt to deconstruct the concept of security which has been by tradition exclusively confined to the military realm. We make evident that security takes into consideration a number of fields and that its major concern is the human person. In addressing security in this work, we do not only refer to the security of states – the concept of national security –, but also to that of individuals – human security –.Governments should integrate in their security agendas not only their own security, but also the security of their nationals. Accordingly, this implies that they should protect their citizens against any threat to human life. In other words, governments or the people they rule do not merely face military threats from other states; they are as well endangered by other threats to their security, these threats are debated in this research paper. We do not mean that military issues are not to be conceptualized within security frameworks, but we do contend that they are not the unique issues to be securitized. Indeed, this paper displays that other issues should be securitized.

The Biological Threat Reduction Program Of The Department Of Defense

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309179515
Size: 23.25 MB
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This Congressionally-mandated report identifies areas for further cooperation with Russia and other states of the former Soviet Union under the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program of the Department of Defense in the specific area of prevention of proliferation of biological weapons. The report reviews relevant U.S. government programs, and particularly the CTR program, and identifies approaches for overcoming obstacles to cooperation and for increasing the long-term impact of the program. It recommends strong support for continuation of the CTR program.

Exporting Security

Author: Derek S. Reveron
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 158901619X
Size: 16.87 MB
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Given U.S. focus on the continuing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, it is easy to miss that the military does much more than engage in combat. On any given day, military engineers dig wells in East Africa, medical personnel provide vaccinations in Latin Amer

Biosecurity Challenges Of The Global Expansion Of High Containment Biological Laboratories

Author: Committee on Anticipating Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-Containment Biological Laboratories
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309225760
Size: 75.88 MB
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During July 10-13, 2011, 68 participants from 32 countries gathered in Istanbul, Turkey for a workshop organized by the United States National Research Council on Anticipating Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-containment Biological Laboratories. The United States Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program sponsored the workshop, which was held in partnership with the Turkish Academy of Sciences. The international workshop examined biosafety and biosecurity issues related to the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of high-containment biological laboratories- equivalent to United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention biological safety level 3 or 4 labs. Although these laboratories are needed to characterize highly dangerous human and animal pathogens, assist in disease surveillance, and produce vaccines, they are complex systems with inherent risks. Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-Containment Biological Laboratories summarizes the workshop discussion, which included the following topics: Technological options to meet diagnostic, research, and other goals; Laboratory construction and commissioning; Operational maintenance to provide sustainable capabilities, safety, and security; and Measures for encouraging a culture of responsible conduct. Workshop attendees described the history and current challenges they face in their individual laboratories. Speakers recounted steps they were taking to improve safety and security, from running training programs to implementing a variety of personnel reliability measures. Many also spoke about physical security, access controls, and monitoring pathogen inventories. Workshop participants also identified tensions in the field and suggested possible areas for action.

Science And Technology To Counter Terrorism

Author: International Strategic and Security Studies Programme of the National Institute of Advanced Studies
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309179164
Size: 63.79 MB
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This volume presents the papers and summarizes the discussions of a workshop held in Goa, India, in January 2004, organized by the Indian National Institute of Advanced Science (NIAS) and the U.S. Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC). During the workshop, Indian and U.S. experts examined the terrorist threat faced in both countries and elsewhere in the world, and explored opportunities for the U.S. and India to work together. Bringing together scientists and experts with common scientific and technical backgrounds from different cultures provided a unique opportunity to explore possible means of preventing or mitigating future terrorist attacks.