Interaction Of Immune And Cancer Cells

Author: Magdalena Klink
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709113008
Size: 56.45 MB
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The tumor environment is a dynamic network that includes cancer cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix, cytokines and receptors. The aim of this book is to summarize the role of these components, especially immune cells, in tumor suppression and/or progression and describe in detail why tumor cells can survive and spread in spite of the antitumor response of immune cells. Since immunotherapy is an attractive approach to cancer therapy, this book also provides information on the two main strategies: monoclonal antibodies and adaptive T cell immunotherapy, with a focus on recent human clinical trials. The book provides a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview of immune cells in cancer and is an indispensable resource for scientists and medical doctors working and/or lecturing in the field of cancer research and immunology. ‚Äč

Immune Based Cancer Treatment

Author: Michael A. Alexander
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439861838
Size: 73.12 MB
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The culmination of 30 years of research and experience in T-cell-based cancer, this book highlights and evaluates new treatments that harness the power of the T cell to attack and kill all cancer cells in our bodies. It describes how the T cell immune system can be manipulated and redirected to kill resistant cancer cells by understanding and influencing the interaction of many different immune cells in the body. Citing current experimental trials, it examines the role and pathology of T-cells and suggests additional experimental approaches to the problem.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Author: George C. Prendergast
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123946336
Size: 13.47 MB
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There has been major growth in understanding immune suppression mechanisms and its relationship to cancer progression and therapy. This book highlights emerging new principles of immune suppression that drive cancer, and it offers radically new ideas about how therapy can be improved by attacking these principles. Following work that firmly establishes immune escape as an essential trait of cancer, recent studies have now defined specific mechanisms of tumor immune suppression. It also demonstrates how attacking tumors with molecular targeted therapeutics or traditional chemotherapeutic drugs can produce potent anti-tumor effects in preclinical models. This book provides basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers with an indispensable overview of immune escape as a critical trait in cancer and how applying specific combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to attack this trait may radically improve the treatment of advanced disease. Offers a synthesis of concepts that are useful to cancer immunologists and pharmacologists, who tend to work in disparate fields with little cross-communication Drs. Prendergast and Jaffee are internationally recognized leaders in cancer biology and immunology who have created a unique synthesis of fundamental and applied concepts in this important new area of cancer research Summarizes the latest insights into how immune escape defines an essential trait of cancer Includes numerous illustrations, including how molecular-targeted therapeutic drugs or traditional chemotherapy can be combined with immunotherapy to improve anti-tumor efficacy and how reversing immune suppression by the tumor can cause tumor regression

The Link Between Inflammation And Cancer

Author: Angus G. Dalgleish
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387262830
Size: 36.16 MB
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A link between inflammation and cancer has been established many years ago, yet it is only recently that the potential significance of this connection has become apparent. Although several examples of chronic inflammatory conditions, often induced by persistent irritation and/or infection, developing into cancer have been known for some time, there has been a notable resistance to contemplate the possibility that this association may apply in a causative way to other cancers. Examples for such progression from chronic inflammation to cancer are colon carcinoma developing with increased frequency in patients with ulcerative colitis, and the increased incidence of bladder cancer in patients suffering from chronic Schistosoma infection. Inflammation and cancer have been recognized to be linked in another context for many years, i.e., with regards to pathologies resembling chronic lacerations or 'wounds that do not heal.' More recently, the immunology of wound healing has given us clues as to the mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer, in as much as wounds and chronic inflammation turn off local cell-mediated immune responses and switch on growth factor release as well the growth of new blood vessels - angiogenesis. Both of these are features of most types of tumours, which suggest that tumours may require an immunologically shielded milieu and a growth factor-rich environment.

Innate And Adaptive Immunity In The Tumor Microenvironment

Author: Eitan Yefenof
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140206750X
Size: 73.46 MB
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Traditionally, the interplay between cancer cells and host immunity has been studied systemically. Recent studies, however, indicate that the tumor microenvironment is unique in providing both supportive and inhibitory factors that determine the fate of the tumor and its host. This volume compiles reviews on innate and adaptive immune responses at the tumor microenvironment with emphasis on positive and negative outcomes that affect the progression of the disease.

Cancer And Autoimmunity

Author: M.E. Gershwin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080528458
Size: 30.70 MB
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Of the two disciplines in parallel development for two decades, tumor immunology and transplantation immunology, the latter has thrived and has led to some of the most critical discoveries in immunobiology. The former continues to thwart both scientists and clinicians alike. The goal of immunologists in modern day research is to develop a simple and effective means to manipulate cancer in vivo, possibly encompassing several venues: identifying a phenotypic marker and the use of either active or passive immunization; include the use of passive reagents carrying "warheads" to selectively destroy cancer cells; or altering the basic process of cell survival. This excellent multidiscipline-authored volume presents a theme which has not been well described before. The papers include both basic and clinical science and range from sophisticated molecular biology to little more than phenomenology (e.g. the increased association of cancer in some autoimmune diseases and increased presentation of autoimmune phenomena in malignant condition). This, however, is state-of-the-art. This collection of themes will be of use not only to bench scientists, but also to clinicians who treat patients. The book represents progress at the cutting edge of this discipline, and points the way to further developments in the "black box" of immunology.

Ecology And Evolution Of Cancer

Author: Beata Ujvari
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128043806
Size: 47.97 MB
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Ecology and Evolution of Cancer is a timely work outlining ideas that not only represent a substantial and original contribution to the fields of evolution, ecology, and cancer, but also goes beyond by connecting the interfaces of these disciplines. This work engages the expertise of a multidisciplinary research team to collate and review the latest knowledge and developments in this exciting research field. The evolutionary perspective of cancer has gained significant international recognition and interest, which is fully understandable given that somatic cellular selection and evolution are elegant explanations for carcinogenesis. Cancer is now generally accepted to be an evolutionary and ecological process with complex interactions between tumor cells and their environment sharing many similarities with organismal evolution. As a critical contribution to this field of research the book is important and relevant for the applications of evolutionary biology to understand the origin of cancers, to control neoplastic progression, and to prevent therapeutic failures. Covers all aspects of the evolution of cancer, appealing to researchers seeking to understand its origins and effects of treatments on its progression, as well as to lecturers in evolutionary medicine Functions as both an introduction to cancer and evolution and a review of the current research on this burgeoning, exciting field, presented by an international group of leading editors and contributors Improves understanding of the origin and the evolution of cancer, aiding efforts to determine how this disease interferes with biotic interactions that govern ecosystems Highlights research that intends to apply evolutionary principles to help predict emergence and metastatic progression with the aim of improving therapies

Mathematical Models Of Tumor Immune System Dynamics

Author: Amina Eladdadi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493917935
Size: 59.83 MB
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This collection of papers offers a broad synopsis of state-of-the-art mathematical methods used in modeling the interaction between tumors and the immune system. These papers were presented at the four-day workshop on Mathematical Models of Tumor-Immune System Dynamics held in Sydney, Australia from January 7th to January 10th, 2013. The workshop brought together applied mathematicians, biologists, and clinicians actively working in the field of cancer immunology to share their current research and to increase awareness of the innovative mathematical tools that are applicable to the growing field of cancer immunology. Recent progress in cancer immunology and advances in immunotherapy suggest that the immune system plays a fundamental role in host defense against tumors and could be utilized to prevent or cure cancer. Although theoretical and experimental studies of tumor-immune system dynamics have a long history, there are still many unanswered questions about the mechanisms that govern the interaction between the immune system and a growing tumor. The multidimensional nature of these complex interactions requires a cross-disciplinary approach to capture more realistic dynamics of the essential biology. The papers presented in this volume explore these issues and the results will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in a variety of fields within mathematical and biological sciences.

Interaction Of Nanomaterials With The Immune System Role In Nanosafety And Nanomedicine

Author: Paola Italiani
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889453871
Size: 13.71 MB
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The immune system has the double role of maintaining tissue integrity and homeostasis and of protecting the organism from possible dangers, from invading pathogens to environmentally-borne dangerous chemicals. New chemicals recognisable by the immune system are engineered nanomaterials/ nanoparticles, new agents in our environment that are becoming common due to their presence in many products, from constructions and building material (e.g., solar cells, pigments and paints, tilesand masonry materials) to daily products (e.g., food packaging, cosmetics, and cigarettes). Human beings can be accidentally exposed to engineered nanomaterials when these are released from products containing them or during production in workplaces. Furthermore, intentional exposure occurs in medicine, as engineered nanoparticles are used as tools for improving delivery of drugs and vaccines, vaccine adjuvants and contrast agents in therapeutic, preventive and diagnostic strategies. Nanoparticles that come in contact with the immune system after unintentional exposure need to be eliminated from the organism as they represent a potential threat. In this case, however, due to their peculiar characteristics of size, shape, surface charge and persistence, nanoparticles may elicit undesirable reactions and have detrimental effects on the immune system, such as cytotoxicity, inflammation, anaphylaxis, immunosuppression. Conversely, nanomedicines need to escape immune recognition/elimination and must persist in the organism long enough for reaching their target and exerting their beneficial effects. Immune cells and molecules at the body surface (airway and digestive mucosae, skin) are the first that come in contact with nanomaterials upon accidental exposure, while immune effectors in blood are those that more easily come in contact with nanomedical products. Thus, evaluating the interaction of the immune system with nanoparticles/nanomaterials is a topic of key importance both in nanotoxicology and in nanomedicine. Immuno-nanosafety studies consider both accidental exposure to nanoparticles, which may occur by skin contact, ingestion or inhalation (at doses and with a frequency that are not known), and medical exposure, which takes place with a defined administration schedule (route, dose, frequency). Many studies focus on the interaction between the immune system and nanoparticles that, for medical purposes, have been specifically modified to stimulate immunity or to avoid immune recognition, as in the case of vaccine carriers/adjuvants or drug delivery systems, respectively. The aims of this Research Topic is to provide an overview of recent strategies: 1.for assessing the immunosafety of engineered nanomaterials/nanoparticles, in particular in terms of activation of inflammatory responses, such as complement activation and allergic reactions, based on the nanomaterial intrinsic characteristics and on the possible carry-over of bioactive contaminants such as LPS. Production of new nanoparticles taking into account their effects on immune responses, in order to avoid undesirable effects on one hand, and to design particles with desirable effects for medical applications on the other hand; 2.for designing more effective nanomedicines by either avoiding or exploiting their interaction with the immune systems, with particular focus on cancer diagnosis and therapy, and vaccination. This collection of articles gives a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of the interaction of nanoparticles with the immune system from the two perspectives of safety and medical use, and aims at providing immunologists with the relevant knowledge for designing improved strategies for immunologically safe nanomaterial applications.

Cancer Immunology And Immunotherapy

Author: Glenn Dranoff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642141362
Size: 13.10 MB
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The interplay between tumors and their immunologic microenvironment is complex, difficult to decipher, but its understanding is of seminal importance for the development of novel prognostic markers and therapeutic strategies. The present review discusses tumor-immune interactions in several human cancers that illustrate various aspects of this complexity and proposes an integrated scheme of the impact of local immune reactions on clinical outcome. Current active immunotherapy trials have shown durable tumor regressions in a fraction of patients. However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumors skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells. To improve the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines in patients with metastatic disease, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.