Methods In Insect Sensory Neuroscience

Author: Thomas A. Christensen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420039423
Size: 29.68 MB
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Insects are among the most diverse and adaptable organisms on Earth. They have long been our chief competitors for food and are responsible for spreading devastating afflictions such as malaria and encephalitis. The insects’ ability to thrive is due in large part to their well-developed sensory systems, which present a host of novel physiological, biochemical, and behavioral attributes that underlie their remarkable feats of sensory performance. Methods in Insect Neuroscience is the first text to showcase the tremendous variety of methods that are available to study the sensory capabilities of insects. It covers the complete spectrum of sensory modalities in insects, from vision and audition, to chemoreception and multimodal processing. The book is designed to serve as a how to guide for putting into practice a wide range of techniques, including behavioral observation, brain imaging, single- and multi-unit electrophysiology, computer modeling/signal processing, and robotics to address innumerable questions. A truly multidisciplinary synthesis of neurobiological, behavioral, and computational approaches to sensory-information processing is most likely to yield our richest understanding of the mechanisms that underlie sensation and perception. In that spirit, this book contains chapters by leading neuroethologists, comparative biologists, neuroscientists, computational biologists, geneticists, and bioengineers who have adopted insects as their models. Their hard work and dedication is evident in the quality of detail contained in every chapter. This book is intended for seasoned neuroscientists looking for state-of-the-art information, as well as discussions on the open-ended questions facing sensory neuroscience today. It is also intended as a primer for newcomers utilizing insects to embark on a study of sensory mechanisms.The opening section provides background information and references about the basic organization of the insect brain and the behavioral strategies used by insects to navigate their complex and varied environments. The latter sections are designed to provide more detailed information about specific sensory modalities and the tools that are used to study them.

Trp Ion Channel Function In Sensory Transduction And Cellular Signaling Cascades

Author: Wolfgang B. Liedtke, MD, PH.D.
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420005847
Size: 41.55 MB
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Since the first TRP ion channel was discovered in Drosophila melanogaster in 1989, the progress made in this area of signaling research has yielded findings that offer the potential to dramatically impact human health and wellness. Involved in gateway activity for all five of our senses, TRP channels have been shown to respond to a wide range of stimuli from both within and outside the cell body. How we sense heat and cold, how we taste food, how eggs are fertilized, how the heart expands and contracts is each dependent on the function of these channels. While no single book could possibly cover all the research being undertaken, TRP Ion Channel Function in Sensory Transduction and Cellular Signaling Cascades presents the most advanced compilation of work in this area to date. All 31 chapters are written by international pioneers working at the vanguard of TRP ion channel research. They explain much about the pivotal function and behavior of these channels, which are most exquisitely tuned to their specific tasks, and delve into how researchers are putting this knowledge to use in the development of novel pharmaceuticals, which may well prove effective in ameliorating treatment-resistant conditions including cancer, heart disease, inflammation, and immune system dysfunctions. Individual chapters shed light on selected topics of interest in the TRP arena, such as signal transduction in axonal path-finding, and in vascular, renal, and auditory functions, as well as pain. The text also covers subjects as diverse as mating and fertilization, inflammatory pain, and mechanisms of pheromone detection in mammals. While the book presents much new insight and explores findings that will be of interest to those involved with advanced research, it also includes significant background material for those looking to familiarize themselves with this exceptionally promising path of inquiry.

Neural Plasticity In Adult Somatic Sensory Motor Systems

Author: Ford F. Ebner
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203508033
Size: 53.49 MB
Format: PDF
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Synthesizing current information about sensory-motor plasticity, Neural Plasticity in Adult Somatic Sensory-Motor Systems provides an up-to-date description of the dynamic processes that occur in somatic sensory-motor cortical circuits or somatic sensory pathways to the cortex due to experience, learning, or damage to the nervous system. The book emphasizes changes in the cortex that are linked to shifts in movement or behavior and demonstrates the potential for direct brain-based interventions to improve the quality of life for people with sensory-motor disabilities. Following initial chapters that cover issues relevant to modifications in sensory processing, the text deals with the motor side of sensory-motor transformations, and includes studies that document the dynamic changes in system properties that occur with normal experience or in recovery from brain damage. Edited by a recognized world authority on neural plasticity, this book provides important insight into the mechanisms of neural plasticity. It is an essential link to understanding the dynamics of learning in the hopes of improving perceptual and motor skills after brain damage.

Spatial Temporal Patterns For Action Oriented Perception In Roving Robots

Author: Paolo Arena
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540884645
Size: 41.27 MB
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The basic principles guiding sensing, perception and action in bio systems seem to rely on highly organised spatial-temporal dynamics. In fact, all biological senses, (visual, hearing, tactile, etc.) process signals coming from different parts distributed in space and also show a complex time evolution. As an example, mammalian retina performs a parallel representation of the visual world embodied into layers, each of which r- resents a particular detail of the scene. These results clearly state that visual perception starts at the level of the retina, and is not related uniquely to the higher brain centres. Although vision remains the most useful sense guiding usual actions, the other senses, ?rst of all hearing but also touch, become essential particularly in cluttered conditions, where visual percepts are somehow obscured by environment conditions. Ef?cient use of hearing can be learnt from acoustic perception in animals/insects, like crickets, that use this ancient sense more than all the others, to perform a vital function, like mating.

Electrochemical Methods For Neuroscience

Author: Adrian C. Michael
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420005863
Size: 65.28 MB
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Since the first implant of a carbon microelectrode in a rat 35 years ago, there have been substantial advances in the sensitivity, selectivity and temporal resolution of electrochemical techniques. Today, these methods provide neurochemical information that is not accessible by other means. The growing recognition of the versatility of electrochemical techniques indicates a need for a greater understanding of the scientific foundation and use of these powerful tools. Electrochemical Methods for Neuroscience provides an updated summary of the current, albeit evolving, state of the art and lays the scientific foundation for incorporating electrochemical techniques into on-going or newly emerging research programs in the neuroscience disciplines. With contributions from pioneers in the field, the text outlines the applications and benefits of a wide range of electrochemical techniques. It explores the methodology behind the acquisition of neurochemical and neurobiological data through continuous amperometry, fast scan cyclic voltammetry, high-speed chronoamperometry, ion-selective microelectrodes, enzyme based microelectrodes, and in vivo voltammetry with telemetry. The text also introduces emerging concepts in the field such as the correlation of electrochemical recordings with information obtained from patch clamp, electrophysiological, and behavioral techniques. By presenting up-to-date information on the growing collection of electrochemical methods, microsensors, and research techniques, Electrochemical Methods for Neuroscience assists seasoned researchers and newcomers to the field in making sound decisions about adopting the most appropriate of these tools for their future research objectives.

Advances In Vagal Afferent Neurobiology

Author: Bradley J. Undem
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203492314
Size: 71.55 MB
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Taking a comprehensive approach in which all aspects of the vagal afferent system are considered, from the terminals in the visceral tissues to the neural pathways within the central nervous system, this extensive text reviews the development, neurochemistry, anatomy, biophysics, pharmacology, and physiology of the vagal afferent nerves. The authors present experimental techniques used to investigate the development, morphology, electrophysiology and reflex function of the vagal afferent nerves, and include state-of-the-art reviews of vagal afferent neurobiology by some of the world's leading experts in these fields.

Neurobiology Of Chemical Communication

Author: Carla Mucignat-Caretta
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466553413
Size: 60.51 MB
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Intraspecific communication involves the activation of chemoreceptors and subsequent activation of different central areas that coordinate the responses of the entire organism—ranging from behavioral modification to modulation of hormones release. Animals emit intraspecific chemical signals, often referred to as pheromones, to advertise their presence to members of the same species and to regulate interactions aimed at establishing and regulating social and reproductive bonds. In the last two decades, scientists have developed a greater understanding of the neural processing of these chemical signals. Neurobiology of Chemical Communication explores the role of the chemical senses in mediating intraspecific communication. Providing an up-to-date outline of the most recent advances in the field, it presents data from laboratory and wild species, ranging from invertebrates to vertebrates, from insects to humans. The book examines the structure, anatomy, electrophysiology, and molecular biology of pheromones. It discusses how chemical signals work on different mammalian and non-mammalian species and includes chapters on insects, Drosophila, honey bees, amphibians, mice, tigers, and cattle. It also explores the controversial topic of human pheromones. An essential reference for students and researchers in the field of pheromones, this is also an ideal resource for those working on behavioral phenotyping of animal models and persons interested in the biology/ecology of wild and domestic species.

The Role Of The Nucleus Of The Solitary Tract In Gustatory Processing

Author: Robert M. Bradley
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420005979
Size: 56.84 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Providing an essential brainstem relay for three cranial nerves, the NST coordinates highly complex sensory information. While other functions of the NST have received attention, its role in gustatory processing has received little. The first reference devoted exclusively to gustatory processing, The Role of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract in Gustatory Processing offers an in-depth review of one of the most important central relay stations in the brain. Combining widely dispersed research into a comprehensive single volume, it presents a thorough historical background, documents the anatomy of the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (rNST), and explores the properties of synaptic transmitters and neurons within that tract. The book examines the role of reflex activities and considers factors that influence how gustatory rNST neurons respond to taste stimuli. It describes the development and maturational changes the rNST undergoes and considers the challenge involved with identifying rNST neural circuits. The Role of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract in Gustatory Processing brings together expert investigators who have contributed substantially to the current knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and developmental biology of the solitary nucleus. This pertinent work serves as a standard reference for those involved in the field, providing ready access to past investigations and inviting practitioners to create new approaches that will advance knowledge about the central processing of gustatory information.