Molecular Mechanisms In Visual Transduction

Author: D.G. Stavenga
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080536774
Size: 17.23 MB
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Molecular mechanisms in visual transduction is presently one of the most intensely studied areas in the field of signal transduction research in biological cells. Because the sense of vision plays a primary role in animal biology, and thus has been subject to long evolutionary development, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying vision have a high degree of sensitivity and versatility. The aims of visual transduction research are first to determine which molecules participate, and then to understand how they act in concert to produce the exquisite electrical responses of the photoreceptor cells. Since the 1940s [1] we have known that rod vision begins with the capture of a quantum of energy, a photon, by a visual pigment molecule, rhodopsin. As the function of photon absorption is to convert the visual pigment molecule into a G-protein activating state, the structural details of the visual pigments must be explained from the perspective of their role in activating their specific G-proteins. Thus, Chapters 1-3 of this Handbook extensively cover the physico-chemical molecular characteristics of the vertebrate rhodopsins. Following photoconversion and G-protein activation, the phototransduction cascade leads to modifications of the population of closed and open ion channels in the photoreceptor plasma membrane, and thereby to the electrical response. The nature of the channels of vertebrate photoreceptors is examined in Chapter 4, and Chapter 5 integrates the present body of knowledge of the activation steps in the cascade into a quantitative framework. Once the phototransduction cascade is activated, it must be subsequently silenced. The various molecular mechanisms participating in inactivation are treated in Chapters 1-4 and especially Chapter 5. Molecular biology is now an indispensable tool in signal transduction studies. Numerous vertebrate (Chapter 6) and invertebrate (Chapter 7) visual pigments have been characterized and cloned. The genetics and evolutionary aspects of this great subfamily of G-protein activating receptors are intriguing as they present a natural probe for the intimate relationship between structure and function of the visual pigments. Understanding the spectral characteristics from the molecular composition can be expected to

Rhodopsins And Phototransduction

Author: Novartis Foundation
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470515708
Size: 73.84 MB
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Brings together key new results of interdisciplinary collaborations among various research fields on rhodopsin including the photoreceptive mechanism of rhodopsins, the molecular mechanism of the visual transduction process, visual processes in the retina and other transduction processes in the retina and brain. The structures of the rhodopsin molecule are studied in the fields of protein chemistry, molecular biology, organic chemistry and structural biology; the ultra fast reactions of the retinal protein are studied in physics, biophysics, physical chemistry, organic chemistry and photobiology; the phototransduction in retinal proteins and visual cells are studied in biophysics, biochemistry, biophysical chemistry and photobiology; and the localization in the tissues is studied in anatomy and histochemistry. The diversity of visual systems in various animals is studied in zoology and comparative biochemistry.

The Molecular Mechanism Of Photoreception

Author: Henning Stieve
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642704441
Size: 18.68 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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very important, especially the comparison of vertebrate and invertebrate transduction mechanisms. The workshop was very successful and the outcome of the discussions proved it worth the effort. To no small extent has that success been made possible by Dr. Silke Bernhard who with a combination of authority and charm together with her extremely efficient and dedicated staff organized this workshop, providing the conditions and framework for a scientific debate of outstanding quality in a friendly and pleasant atmosphere. The great majority of participants were also very committed to making this workshop successful. Besides the reports of the four discussion groups, this publication contains the background papers which were revised by the authors partly as a result of suggestions of some participants. I hope this book will give a fair overview of the state of our knowledge of research in visual transduction. It was a pleasure to edit, especially because of the friendly and very efficient commitment of K. Geue, J. Lupp, and A. Eckert and the cooperativeness of most of the contributors. Particularly I would like to acknowledge gratefully the extensive efforts and patience of the four rapporteurs, M.L. Applebury, W.H. Miller, W.G. Owen, and E.N. Pugh, Jr., in compiling, writing, and revising the group reports. REFERENCES (1) Altman, J. 1985. Sensory transduction, new visions in photoreception. Nature 313: 264-265. (2) Hagins, W.A. 1972. The visual process: Excitatory mechanisms in the primary receptor cells. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 1: 131-158.

Visual Transduction And Non Visual Light Perception

Author: Joyce Tombran-Tink
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781597453745
Size: 71.52 MB
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This book reveals not only how the eye evolved into an organ of vision, but also describes how molecular mechanisms of key molecules operate in the phototransduction cascade. In this groundbreaking text, experts also explain mechanisms for sensing radiation outside of the visible wavelengths. Comprehensive and penetrating, the book brings together the mechanisms of the visual transduction cascade and is an invaluable text for everyone conducting research in the visual system.

Cellular Signal Processing

Author: Friedrich Marks
Publisher: Garland Science
ISBN: 1351677217
Size: 26.71 MB
Format: PDF
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Cellular Signal Processing offers a unifying view of cell signaling based on the concept that protein interactions act as sophisticated data processing networks that govern intracellular and extracellular communication. It is intended for use in signal transduction courses for undergraduate and graduate students working in biology, biochemistry, bioinformatics, and pharmacology, as well as medical students. The text is organized by three key topics central to signal transduction: the protein network, its energy supply, and its evolution. It covers all important aspects of cell signaling, ranging from prokaryotic signal transduction to neuronal signaling, and also highlights the clinical aspects of cell signaling in health and disease. This new edition includes expanded coverage of prokaryotes, as well as content on new developments in systems biology, epigenetics, redox signaling, and small, non-coding RNA signaling.

Advances In Photoreception

Author: Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309042402
Size: 74.72 MB
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One of a continuing series on Frontiers of Visual Science, this short volume contains papers presented at a recent symposium. These papers describe techniques for assessing the structure and function of photoreception, both in isolation and in aggregation as the "receptor mosaic" of the retina. Also described are dynamic and spatial sampling properties of photoreceptors, with an emphasis on techniques of measurement and associated models of retinal function. This volume should be of interest to basic vision scientists, clinical ophthalmologists, workers in human factors, and computer scientists curious about the visual apparatus of biological systems.

Signal Transduction

Author: B. D. Gomperts
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780122896316
Size: 15.33 MB
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Signal Transduction is a well-illustrated, coherent look at cellular signaling processes. Beginning with the basics, it explains how cells respond to external cues, hormones, growth factors, cytokines, cell surfaces, etc., and then shows how these inputs are integrated and coordinated. The extensive color artwork provides the reader with a clearer comprehension of key topics, and margin notes are incorporated to highlight milestones in the evolution of signal transduction. This book serves as an invaluable resource for advanced undergraduates, graduate researchers, and established scientists working in cell biology, pharmacology, immunology, and related fields. Key Features *Coherent, precise text providing insight in depth to a subject that is central to cell biology and fundamental to many areas of biomedicine * Extensive conceptual colour artwork assists with the comprehension of key topics * Extensive referencing provides an invaluable link to the core and historical literature * Margin notes highlighting milestones in the evolution of our understanding of signalling mechanisms

Molecular Mechanisms Of Hormone Action

Author: Ulrich Gehring
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642750222
Size: 19.28 MB
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Recent years have seen tremendous progress in the field of hormone action and consequent signal transduction. The 40th Colloquium Mosbach was devoted to the discussion of results concerning the molecular process of hormone action, especially the processes following hormone binding to the corresponding receptors. Structural and functional aspects of steroid hormone receptors as well as ion-channel-coupled and enzyme-linked receptors were treated in detail. Particular interest focussed on the latest results concerning transcriptional control, protein phosphorylation, the role of G-Proteins, oncogene proteins, involvement of phospholipases and the regulation of ion channels.

Ocular Disease Mechanisms And Management E Book

Author: Leonard A Levin
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0702047414
Size: 75.13 MB
Format: PDF
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Ocular Disease—a newly introduced companion volume to the classic Adler’s Physiology of the Eye—correlates basic science and clinical management to describe the how and why of eye disease processes and the related best management protocols. Editors Leonard A. Levin and Daniel M. Albert—two of the world’s leading ophthalmic clinician-scientists—have recruited as contributors the most expert and experienced authorities available in each of the major areas of ophthalmic disease specific to ophthalmology: retina, cornea, cataract, glaucoma, uveitis, and more. The concise chapter structure features liberal use of color—with 330 full-color line artworks, call-out boxes, summaries, and schematics for easy navigation and understanding. This comprehensive resource provides you with a better and more practical understanding of the science behind eye disease and its relation to treatment. Covers all areas of disease in ophthalmology including retina, cornea, cataract, glaucoma, and uveitis for the comprehensive information you need for managing clinical cases. Presents a unique and pragmatic blend of necessary basic science and clinical application to serve as a clinical guide to understanding the cause and rational management of ocular disease. Features 330 full-color line artworks that translate difficult concepts and discussions into concise schematics for improved understanding and comprehension. Provides the expert advice of internationally recognized editors with over 40 years of experience together with a group of world class contributors in basic science and clinical ophthalmology.