Naturalism And Philosophical Anthropology

Author: Phillip Honenberger
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137500883
Size: 26.80 MB
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What is a human being? Philosophical anthropology has approached this question with unusual sophistication, experimentalism, and subtlety. This volume explores the philosophical anthropologies of Scheler, Gehlen, Plessner, and Blumenberg in terms of their relevance to contemporary theories of nature, naturalism, organic life, and human affairs.

Anthropology S Interrogation Of Philosophy From The Eighteenth To The Twentieth Century

Author: Jerome Fanning Marsden Carroll
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498558011
Size: 61.34 MB
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Anthropology's Interrogation of Philosophy from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Century presents and discusses key aspects of the German tradition of philosophical anthropology from the eighteenth to the twentieth century, centering on the concept of anthropology as a study of the ‘whole, concrete man’ (Heinrich Weber, 1810). Philosophical anthropology appears during the last decades of the eighteenth century in the often practically-oriented writings of men such as Ernst Platner, Karl Wezel, and Johann Herder, and is then taken up in the twentieth century by thinkers including Max Scheler, Helmut Plessner, Arnold Gehlen, and Hans Blumenberg. In presenting this tradition, the book serves two primary purposes. Firstly, it introduces English readers in a coherent manner to key aspects of a two-hundred year tradition in German thought. Secondly, the book analyzes in an unprecedented manner, even in German scholarship, the connections between the philosophical debates associated with anthropology at the end of the eighteenth century and ongoing philosophical issues in the twentieth century. Specifically, author Jerome Carroll argues that late eighteenth century anthropology diverges pointedly from traditional, "foundational" approaches to philosophy, for instance rejecting philosophy’s quest for absolute foundations for knowledge or a priori categories and turning to a more descriptive account of man’s "being in the world." Notably, by drawing on the epistemological, ontological, and methodological aspects and implications of anthropological holism, this book reads the philosophical significance of classical twentieth century anthropology through the lens of eighteenth century writings on anthropology.

Moral Engines

Author: Cheryl Mattingly
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1785336940
Size: 39.15 MB
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In the past fifteen years, there has been a virtual explosion of anthropological literature arguing that morality should be considered central to human practice. Out of this explosion new and invigorating conversations have emerged between anthropologists and philosophers. Moral Engines: Exploring the Ethical Drives in Human Life includes essays from some of the foremost voices in the anthropology of morality, offering unique interdisciplinary conversations between anthropologists and philosophers about the moral engines of ethical life, addressing the question: What propels humans to act in light of ethical ideals?

The Language Animal

Author: Charles Taylor
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674970276
Size: 12.71 MB
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From Sources of the Self to A Secular Age, Charles Taylor has shown how we create ways of being, as individuals and as a society. Here, he demonstrates that language is at the center of this generative process. Language does not merely describe; it constitutes meaning, and the shared practice of speech shapes human experience.

Death And Finitude

Author: Sami Pihlström
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498524427
Size: 39.39 MB
Format: PDF
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This book integrates pragmatism and transcendental philosophy in examining the most serious problem defining the human condition, death and mortality. Its analysis of human limits and finitude is intended to be relevant to the concerns of philosophers specializing in, for example, transcendental philosophy, philosophical anthropology, pragmatism, Wittgenstein, and the philosophy of religion. Mortality is studied as providing a necessary framework within which questions concerning the meaningfulness or meaninglessness of human life become possible.

Historical Knowledge Historical Error

Author: Allan Megill
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226518302
Size: 29.47 MB
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In the past thirty years, historians have broadened the scope of their discipline to include many previously neglected topics and perspectives. They have chronicled language, madness, gender, and sexuality and have experimented with new forms of presentation. They have turned to the histories of non-Western peoples and to the troubled relations between “the West” and the rest. Allan Megill welcomes these developments, but he also suggests that there is now confusion among historians about what counts as a justified account of the past. In Historical Knowledge, Historical Error, Megill dispels some of the confusion. Here, he discusses issues of narrative, objectivity, and memory. He attacks what he sees as irresponsible uses of evidence while accepting the art of speculation, which incomplete evidence forces upon historians. Along the way, he offers succinct accounts of the epistemological road historians have traveled from Herodotus and Thucydides through Leopold von Ranke and Alexis de Tocqueville, and on to Hayden White, Natalie Zemon Davis, and Lynn Hunt.

Phenomenology And The Transcendental

Author: Sara Heinämaa
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135138710
Size: 34.26 MB
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The aim of this volume is to offer an updated account of the transcendental character of phenomenology. The main question concerns the sense and relevance of transcendental philosophy today: What can such philosophy contribute to contemporary inquiries and debates after the many reasoned attacks against its idealistic, aprioristic, absolutist and universalistic tendencies—voiced most vigorously by late 20th century postmodern thinkers—as well as attacks against its apparently circular arguments and suspicious metaphysics launched by many analytic philosophers? Contributors also aim to clarify the relations of transcendental phenomenology to other post-Kantian philosophies, most importantly to pragmatism and Wittgenstein’s philosophical investigations. Finally, the volume offers a set of reflections on the meaning of post-transcendental phenomenology.

Naturalizing The Transcendental

Author: Sami Pihlström
Publisher: Prometheus Books
Size: 32.33 MB
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Though it has often been claimed that pragmatism was formed as a synthesis of Kant and Darwin, most philosophers, including pragmatists themselves, have largely neglected Kant's crucial influence on pragmatist thinkers. In this powerful and original work, Finnish philosopher Sami Pihlström argues that the transcendental and the pragmatist traditions should converge, or at least supplement each other, instead of being regarded as rivals. According to Pihlström, Kant's basic transcendental project—i.e., of investigating the conditions of our ability to experience and represent structured reality—can be reconciled with a naturalist conception of the world and the place of human beings in it. He proposes a workable middle ground between extreme realism on the one hand and extreme postmodernist skepticism and relativism on the other. Divided into two main parts, Pihlström's task is, first, to provide a pragmatist and naturalized reconstruction of what transcendental philosophy is and, second, to apply transcendental arguments to epistemology, philosophy of science, and ethics. One of his principal points is that the dispute over the status of transcendental philosophy and its relation to naturalism should not be restricted to metaphysics and epistemology. Along with Kant, Pihlström views ethics as the crown of philosophical reflections on what it is to be a rational being experiencing a structured reality. He concludes by suggesting that a pragmatic moral realism ought to be seen as a transcendentally established principle within our natural human practices of ethical evaluation. This exciting rethinking of transcendental argumentation within a pragmatist, naturalistic framework, by a philosopher familiar with both analytic and Continental philosophy, makes a significant contribution to the development of the American philosophical tradition.

Becoming Human

Author: Chad Wellmon
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271048522
Size: 65.49 MB
Format: PDF
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"Examines the crisis of a late eighteenth-century anthropology as it relates to the emergence of a modern consciousness that sees itself as condemned to draw its norms and very self-understanding from itself"--Provided by publisher.

Cultural Evolution

Author: Tim Lewens
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199674183
Size: 20.27 MB
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This title exposes and evaluates a set of conceptual disputes concerning what we might mean by culture, and how we should go about accounting for it. Its particular focus is a set of evolutionary approaches to the genesis of the human capacity for culture, to subsequent cultural change, and to the ways in which genetic and cultural change interact, or 'co-evolve'. The book as a whole argues that there is little realistic hope that the social sciences might become unified around an evolutionary synthesis. Instead the defence of evolutionary approaches to culture must be more modest in scope