Neuromechanical Modeling Of Posture And Locomotion

Author: Boris I. Prilutsky
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493932675
Size: 25.11 MB
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Neuromechanics is a new, quickly growing field of neuroscience research that merges neurophysiology, biomechanics and motor control and aims at understanding living systems and their elements through interactions between their neural and mechanical dynamic properties. Although research in Neuromechanics is not limited by computational approaches, neuromechanical modeling is a powerful tool that allows for integration of massive knowledge gained in the past several decades in organization of motion related brain and spinal cord activity, various body sensors and reflex pathways, muscle mechanical and physiological properties and detailed quantitative morphology of musculoskeletal systems. Recent work in neuromechanical modeling has demonstrated advantages of such an integrative approach and led to discoveries of new emergent properties of neuromechanical systems. Neuromechanical Modeling of Posture and Locomotion will cover a wide range of topics from theoretical studies linking the organization of reflex pathways and central pattern generating circuits with morphology and mechanics of the musculoskeletal system (Burkholder; Nichols; Shevtsova et al.) to detailed neuromechanical models of postural and locomotor control (Bunderson; Edwards, Marking et al., Ting). Furthermore, uniquely diverse modeling approaches will be presented in the book including a theoretical dynamic analysis of locomotor phase transitions (Spardy and Rubin), a hybrid computational modeling that allows for in vivo interactions between parts of a living organism and a computer model (Edwards et al.), a physical neuromechanical model of the human locomotor system (Lewis), and others.

Neurobiology Of Motor Control

Author: Scott L. Hooper
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118873343
Size: 32.26 MB
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A multi-disciplinary look at the current state of knowledge regarding motor control and movement—from molecular biology to robotics The last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in the number of sophisticated tools and methodologies for exploring motor control and movement. Multi-unit recordings, molecular neurogenetics, computer simulation, and new scientific approaches for studying how muscles and body anatomy transform motor neuron activity into movement have helped revolutionize the field. Neurobiology of Motor Control brings together contributions from an interdisciplinary group of experts to provide a review of the current state of knowledge about the initiation and execution of movement, as well as the latest methods and tools for investigating them. The book ranges from the findings of basic scientists studying model organisms such as mollusks and Drosophila, to biomedical researchers investigating vertebrate motor production to neuroengineers working to develop robotic and smart prostheses technologies. Following foundational chapters on current molecular biological techniques, neuronal ensemble recording, and computer simulation, it explores a broad range of related topics, including the evolution of motor systems, directed targeted movements, plasticity and learning, and robotics. Explores motor control and movement in a wide variety of organisms, from simple invertebrates to human beings Offers concise summaries of motor control systems across a variety of animals and movement types Explores an array of tools and methodologies, including electrophysiological techniques, neurogenic and molecular techniques, large ensemble recordings, and computational methods Considers unresolved questions and how current scientific advances may be used to solve them going forward Written specifically to encourage interdisciplinary understanding and collaboration, and offering the most wide-ranging, timely, and comprehensive look at the science of motor control and movement currently available, Neurobiology of Motor Control is a must-read for all who study movement production and the neurobiological basis of movement—from molecular biologists to roboticists.

The Computing Dendrite

Author: Hermann Cuntz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461480949
Size: 13.20 MB
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Neuronal dendritic trees are complex structures that endow the cell with powerful computing capabilities and allow for high neural interconnectivity. Studying the function of dendritic structures has a long tradition in theoretical neuroscience, starting with the pioneering work by Wilfrid Rall in the 1950s. Recent advances in experimental techniques allow us to study dendrites with a new perspective and in greater detail. The goal of this volume is to provide a résumé of the state-of-the-art in experimental, computational, and mathematical investigations into the functions of dendrites in a variety of neural systems. The book first looks at morphological properties of dendrites and summarizes the approaches to measure dendrite morphology quantitatively and to actually generate synthetic dendrite morphologies in computer models. This morphological characterization ranges from the study of fractal principles to describe dendrite topologies, to the consequences of optimization principles for dendrite shape. Individual approaches are collected to study the aspects of dendrite shape that relate directly to underlying circuit constraints and computation. The second main theme focuses on how dendrites contribute to the computations that neurons perform. What role do dendritic morphology and the distributions of synapses and membrane properties over the dendritic tree have in determining the output of a neuron in response to its input? A wide range of studies is brought together, with topics ranging from general to system-specific phenomena—some having a strong experimental component, and others being fully theoretical. The studies come from many different neural systems and animal species ranging from invertebrates to mammals. With this broad focus, an overview is given of the diversity of mechanisms that dendrites can employ to shape neural computations.

Biomimetic And Biohybrid Systems

Author: Armin Duff
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319094351
Size: 26.51 MB
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This book constitutes the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems, Living Machines 2014, held in Milan, Italy, in July/August 2014. The 31 full papers and 27 extended abstracts included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 62 submissions. The topics covered are brain based systems, active sensing, soft robotics, learning, memory, control architectures, self-regulation, movement and locomotion, sensory systems and perception.

Progress In Motor Control

Author: Jozsef Laczko
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319473131
Size: 53.31 MB
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This single volume brings together both theoretical developments in the field of motor control and their translation into such fields as movement disorders, motor rehabilitation, robotics, prosthetics, brain-machine interface, and skill learning. Motor control has established itself as an area of scientific research characterized by a multi-disciplinary approach. Its goal is to promote cooperation and mutual understanding among researchers addressing different aspects of the complex phenomenon of motor coordination. Topics covered include recent theoretical advances from various fields, the neurophysiology of complex natural movements, the equilibrium-point hypothesis, motor learning of skilled behaviors, the effects of age, brain injury, or systemic disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, and brain-computer interfaces. The chapter ‘Encoding Temporal Features of Skilled Movements—What, Whether and How?’ is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.

Replace Repair Restore Relieve Bridging Clinical And Engineering Solutions In Neurorehabilitation

Author: Winnie Jensen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319080725
Size: 42.14 MB
Format: PDF
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The book is the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR 2014), held 24th-26th June 2014 in Aalborg, Denmark. The conference featured the latest highlights in the emerging and interdisciplinary field of neural rehabilitation engineering and identified important healthcare challenges the scientific community will be faced with in the coming years. Edited and written by leading experts in the field, the book includes keynote papers, regular conference papers, and contributions to special and innovation sessions, covering the following main topics: neuro-rehabilitation applications and solutions for restoring impaired neurological functions; cutting-edge technologies and methods in neuro-rehabilitation; and translational challenges in neuro-rehabilitation. Thanks to its highly interdisciplinary approach, the book will not only be a highly relevant reference guide for academic researchers, engineers, neurophysiologists, neuroscientists, physicians and physiotherapists working at the forefront of their field, but will also help to act as bridge between the scientific, engineering and medical communities.

Fundamentals Of Neuromechanics

Author: Francisco J. Valero-Cuevas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1447167473
Size: 12.48 MB
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This book provides a conceptual and computational framework to study how the nervous system exploits the anatomical properties of limbs to produce mechanical function. The study of the neural control of limbs has historically emphasized the use of optimization to find solutions to the muscle redundancy problem. That is, how does the nervous system select a specific muscle coordination pattern when the many muscles of a limb allow for multiple solutions? I revisit this problem from the emerging perspective of neuromechanics that emphasizes finding and implementing families of feasible solutions, instead of a single and unique optimal solution. Those families of feasible solutions emerge naturally from the interactions among the feasible neural commands, anatomy of the limb, and constraints of the task. Such alternative perspective to the neural control of limb function is not only biologically plausible, but sheds light on the most central tenets and debates in the fields of neural control, robotics, rehabilitation, and brain-body co-evolutionary adaptations. This perspective developed from courses I taught to engineers and life scientists at Cornell University and the University of Southern California, and is made possible by combining fundamental concepts from mechanics, anatomy, mathematics, robotics and neuroscience with advances in the field of computational geometry. Fundamentals of Neuromechanics is intended for neuroscientists, roboticists, engineers, physicians, evolutionary biologists, athletes, and physical and occupational therapists seeking to advance their understanding of neuromechanics. Therefore, the tone is decidedly pedagogical, engaging, integrative, and practical to make it accessible to people coming from a broad spectrum of disciplines. I attempt to tread the line between making the mathematical exposition accessible to life scientists, and convey the wonder and complexity of neuroscience to engineers and computational scientists. While no one approach can hope to definitively resolve the important questions in these related fields, I hope to provide you with the fundamental background and tools to allow you to contribute to the emerging field of neuromechanics.

Biomimetic And Biohybrid Systems

Author: Nathan F. Lepora
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642398022
Size: 26.39 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the second International Conference on Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems, Living Machines 2013, held in London, UK, in July/August 2013. The 65 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from various submissions. The papers are targeted at the intersection of research on novel live-like technologies inspired by scientific investigation of biological systems, biomimetics, and research that seeks to interface biological and artificial systems to create biohybrid systems

Biomechanics And Neural Control Of Posture And Movement

Author: Jack M. Winters
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461221048
Size: 26.69 MB
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Most routine motor tasks are complex, involving load transmission through out the body, intricate balance, and eye-head-shoulder-hand-torso-leg coor dination. The quest toward understanding how we perform such tasks with skill and grace, often in the presence of unpredictable perturbations, has a long history. This book arose from the Ninth Engineering Foundation Con ference on Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement, held in Deer Creek, Ohio, in June 1996. This unique conference, which has met every 2 to 4 years since the late 1960s, is well known for its informal format that promotes high-level, up-to-date discussions on the key issues in the field. The intent is to capture the high quality ofthe knowledge and discourse that is an integral part of this conference series. The book is organized into ten sections. Section I provides a brief intro duction to the terminology and conceptual foundations of the field of move ment science; it is intended primarily for students. All but two of the re maining nine sections share a common format: (l) a designated section editor; (2) an introductory didactic chapter, solicited from recognized lead ers; and (3) three to six state-of-the-art perspective chapters. Some per spective chapters are followed by commentaries by selected experts that provide balance and insight. Section VI is the largest section, and it con sists of nine perspective chapters without commentaries.

Neuro Motor Control And Feed Forward Models Of Locomotion In Humans

Author: Marco Iosa
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889196143
Size: 16.37 MB
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Locomotion involves many different muscles and the need of controlling several degrees of freedom. Despite the Central Nervous System can finely control the contraction of individual muscles, emerging evidences indicate that strategies for the reduction of the complexity of movement and for compensating the sensorimotor delays may be adopted. Experimental evidences in animal and lately human model led to the concept of a central pattern generator (CPG) which suggests that circuitry within the distal part of CNS, i.e. spinal cord, can generate the basic locomotor patterns, even in the absence of sensory information. Different studies pointed out the role of CPG in the control of locomotion as well as others investigated the neuroplasticity of CPG allowing for gait recovery after spinal cord lesion. Literature was also focused on muscle synergies, i.e. the combination of (locomotor) functional modules, implemented in neuronal networks of the spinal cord, generating specific motor output by imposing a specific timing structure and appropriate weightings to muscle activations. Despite the great interest that this approach generated in the last years in the Scientific Community, large areas of investigations remain available for further improvement (e.g. the influence of afferent feedback and environmental constrains) for both experimental and simulated models. However, also supraspinal structures are involved during locomotion, and it has been shown that they are responsible for initiating and modifying the features of this basic rhythm, for stabilising the upright walking, and for coordinating movements in a dynamic changing environment. Furthermore, specific damages into spinal and supraspinal structures result in specific alterations of human locomotion, as evident in subjects with brain injuries such as stroke, brain trauma, or people with cerebral palsy, in people with death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra due to Parkinson’s disease, or in subjects with cerebellar dysfunctions, such as patients with ataxia. The role of cerebellum during locomotion has been shown to be related to coordination and adaptation of movements. Cerebellum is the structure of CNS where are conceivably located the internal models, that are neural representations miming meaningful aspects of our body, such as input/output characteristics of sensorimotor system. Internal model control has been shown to be at the basis of motor strategies for compensating delays or lacks in sensorimotor feedbacks, and some aspects of locomotion need predictive internal control, especially for improving gait dynamic stability, for avoiding obstacles or when sensory feedback is altered or lacking. Furthermore, despite internal model concepts are widespread in neuroscience and neurocognitive science, neurorehabilitation paid far too little attention to the potential role of internal model control on gait recovery. Many important scientists have contributed to this Research Topic with original studies, computational studies, and review articles focused on neural circuits and internal models involved in the control of human locomotion, aiming at understanding the role played in control of locomotion of different neural circuits located at brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord levels.