Advances In Research On Age In The Workplace And Retirement

Author: Cort W. Rudolph
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889453936
Size: 64.87 MB
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Shifts in the age composition of the workforce coupled with dynamic definitions of retirement represent important issues that influence work processes and, more generally, the experience of working across one’s career. For example, redefinitions of careers and the changing nature of working have contributed to the emergence of distinct forms and patterns of work experiences across the prototypical work lifespan. Likewise, older individuals are increasingly delaying retirement in favor of longer-term labor force participation. The study of age and work, and work and retirement by industrial, work, and organizational (IWO) psychologists and scholars of human resources management and organizational behavior (HR/OB) has recently proliferated in part as a result of such trends, along with the recognition that age-related processes are important indicators of various proximal (e.g., job attitudes, work behaviors, work motives, and wellbeing) and distal outcomes (e.g., sustainable employability, climates for aging, and firm performance) at various levels of abstraction in modern work environments. Recent theoretical advances have suggested that age, along with individual psychological factors and various contextual influences can jointly influence work outcomes that contribute to long-term employment success, including work performance, job attitudes, work orientations, and motivations. Similar theoretical developments concerning retirement have postulated individual and contextual elements that drive success in the transition from career and work roles to non-work and leisure as well as post-retirement bridge employment roles. In this Research Topic, we aim to curate a collection of papers that are representative of current trends and advances in thinking about and investigating the role of age in workplace processes and the changing nature of retirement. Our hope is to showcase various contemporary ideas and rigorous empirical studies as a means to inform broader thinking and to support enhanced theorizing and organizational practice regarding these processes.

Advances In Emotion Regulation From Neuroscience To Psychotherapy

Author: Alessandro Grecucci
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889452433
Size: 43.30 MB
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Emotions are the gift nature gave us to help us connect with others. Emotions do not come from out of nowhere. Rather, they are constantly generated, usually by stimuli in our interpersonal world. They bond us to others, guide us in navigating our social interactions, and help us care for each other. Paraphrasing Shakespeare, “Our relationships are such stuff as emotions are made of”. Emotions express our needs and desires. When problems happen in our relationships, emotions arise to help us fixing those problems. However, when emotions can become dysregulated, pathology begins. Almost all forms of psychopathology are associated with dysregulated emotions or dysregulatory mechanisms. These dysregulated emotions can become regulated when the therapist helps clients express, face and regulate their emotions, and channel them into healthy actions. This research topic gathers contributions from affective neuroscientists and psychotherapists to illustrate how our emotions become dysregulated in life and can become regulated through psychotherapy.

Dialogues In Music Therapy And Music Neuroscience Collaborative Understanding Driving Clinical Advances

Author: Julian O'Kelly
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889451372
Size: 18.81 MB
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Music is a complex, dynamic stimulus with an un-paralleled ability to stimulate a global network of neural activity involved in attention, emotion, memory, communication, motor co-ordination and cognition. As such, it provides neuroscience with a highly effective tool to develop our understanding of brain function, connectivity and plasticity. Increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies have enabled the expanding field of music neuroscience to reveal how musical experience, perception and cognition may support neuroplasticity, with important implications for the rehabilitation and assessment of those with acquired brain injuries and neurodegenerative conditions. Other studies have indicated the potential for music to support arousal, attention and emotional regulation, suggesting therapeutic applications for conditions including ADHD, PTSD, autism, learning disorders and mood disorders. In common with neuroscience, the music therapy profession has advanced significantly in the past 20 years. Various interventions designed to address functional deficits and health care needs have been developed, alongside standardised behavioural assessments. Historically, music therapy has drawn its evidence base from a number of contrasting theoretical frameworks. Clinicians are now turning to neuroscience, which offers a unifying knowledge base and frame of reference to understand and measure therapeutic interventions from a biomedical perspective. Conversely, neuroscience is becoming more enriched by learning about the neural effects of ‘real world’ clinical applications in music therapy. While neuroscientific imaging methods may provide biomarking evidence for the efficacy of music therapy interventions it also offers important tools to describe time-locked interactive therapy processes and feeds into the emerging field of social neuroscience. Music therapy is bound to the process of creating and experiencing music together in improvisation, listening and reflection. Thus the situated cognition and experience of music developing over time and in differing contexts is of interest in time series data. We encouraged researchers to submit papers illustrating the mutual benefits of dialogue between music therapy and other disciplines important to this field, particularly neuroscience, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology. The current eBook consists of the peer reviewed responses to our call for papers.

What Determines Social Behavior Investigating The Role Of Emotions Self Centered Motives And Social Norms

Author: Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889199649
Size: 31.12 MB
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Human behavior and decision making is subject to social and motivational influences such as emotions, norms and self/other regarding preferences. The identification of the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying these factors is a central issue in psychology, behavioral economics and social neuroscience, with important clinical, social, and even political implications. However, despite a continuously growing interest from the scientific community, the processes underlying these factors, as well as their ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, have so far remained elusive. In this Research Topic we collect articles that provide challenging insights and stimulate a fruitful controversy on the question of “what determines social behavior”. Indeed, over the last decades, research has shown that introducing a social context to otherwise abstract tasks has diverse effects on social behavior. On the one hand, it may induce individuals to act irrationally, for instance to refuse money, but on the other hand it improves individuals’ reasoning, in that formerly difficult abstract problems can be easily solved. These lines of research led to distinct (although not necessarily mutually exclusive) models for socially-driven behavioral changes. For instance, a popular theoretical framework interprets human behavior as a result of a conflict between cognition and emotion, with the cognitive system promoting self-interested choices, and the emotional system (triggered by the social context) operating against them. Other theories favor social norms and deontic heuristics in biasing human reasoning and encouraging choices that are sometimes in conflict with one’s interest. Few studies attempted to disentangle between these (as well as other) models. As a consequence, although insightful results arise from specific domains/tasks, a comprehensive theoretical framework is still missing. Furthermore, studies employing neuroimaging techniques have begun to shed some light on the neural substrates involved in social behavior, implicating consistently (although not exclusively) portions of the limbic system, the insular and the prefrontal cortex. In this context, a challenge for present research lies not only in further mapping the brain structures implicated in social behavior, or in describing in detail the functional interaction between these structures, but in showing how the implicated networks relate to different theoretical models. This is Research Topic hosted by members of the Swiss National Center of Competence in Research “Affective Sciences – Emotions in Individual Behaviour and Social Processes”. We collected contributions from the international community which extended the current knowledge about the psychological and neural structures underlying social behavior and decision making. In particular, we encouraged submissions from investigators arising from different domains (psychology, behavioral economics, affective sciences, etc.) implementing different techniques (behavior, electrophysiology, neuroimaging, brain stimulations) on different populations (neurotypical adults, children, brain damaged or psychiatric patients, etc.). Animal studies are also included, as the data reported are of high comparative value. Finally, we also welcomed submissions of meta-analytical articles, mini-reviews and perspective papers which offer provocative and insightful interpretations of the recent literature in the field.

Language In Mind

Author: Dedre Gentner
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262571630
Size: 30.66 MB
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Contemporary investigations of the Whorfian idea that language influences how we perceive and understand the world.

Advances In Virtual Agents And Affective Computing For The Understanding And Remediation Of Social Cognitive Disorders

Author: Eric Brunet-Gouet
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889197875
Size: 47.87 MB
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Advances in modern sciences occur thanks to within-fields discoveries as well as confrontation of concepts and methods from separated, sometimes distant, domains of knowledge. For instance, the fields of psychology and psychopathology benefited from accumulated contributions from cognitive neurosciences, which, in turn, received insights from molecular chemistry, cellular biology, physics (neuroimaging), statistics and computer sciences (data processing), etc. From the results of these researches, one can argue that among the numerous cognitive phenomena supposedly involved in the emergence the human intelligence and organized behavior, some of them are specific to the social nature of our phylogenetic order. Scientific reductionism allowed to divide the social cognitive system into several components, i.e. emotion processing and regulation, mental state inference (theory of mind), agency, etc. New paradigms were progressively designed to investigate these processes within highly-controlled laboratory settings. Moreover, the related constructs were successful at better understanding psychopathological conditions such as autism and schizophrenia, with partial relationships with illness outcomes. Here, we would like to outline the parallel development of concepts in social neurosciences and in other domains such as computer science, affective computing, virtual reality development, and even hardware technologies. While several researchers in neurosciences pointed out the necessity to consider naturalistic social cognition (Zaki and Ochsner, Ann N Y Acad Sci 1167, 16-30, 2009), the second person perspective (Schilbach et al., Behav Brain Sci 36(4), 393-414, 2013) and reciprocity (de Bruin et al., Front Hum Neurosci 6, 151, 2012), both computer and software developments allowed more and more realistic real-time models of our environment and of virtual humans capable of some interaction with users. As noted at the very beginning of this editorial, a new convergence between scientific disciplines might occur from which it is tricky to predict the outcomes in terms of new concepts, methods and uses. Although this convergence is motivated by the intuition that it fits well ongoing societal changes (increasing social demands on computer technologies, augmenting funding), it comes with several difficulties for which the current Frontiers in’ topic strives to bring some positive answers, and to provide both theoretical arguments and experimental examples. The first issue is about concepts and vocabulary as the contributions described in the following are authored by neuroscientists, computer scientists, psychopathologists, etc. A special attention was given during the reviewing process to stay as close as possible to the publication standards in psychological and health sciences, and to avoid purely technical descriptions. The second problem concerns methods: more complex computerized interaction models results in unpredictable and poorly controlled experiments. In other words, the assets of naturalistic paradigms may be alleviated by the difficulty to match results between subjects, populations, conditions. Of course, this practical question is extremely important for investigating pathologies that are associated with profoundly divergent behavioral patterns. Some of the contributions of this topic provide description of strategies that allowed to solve these difficulties, at least partially. The last issue is about heterogeneity of the objectives of the researches presented here. While selection criteria focused on the use of innovative technologies to assess or improve social cognition, the fields of application of this approach were quite unexpected. In an attempt to organize the contributions, three directions of research can be identified: 1) how innovation in methods might improve understanding and assessment of social cognition disorders or pathology? 2) within the framework of cognitive behavioral psychotherapies (CBT), how should we consider the use of virtual reality or augmented reality? 3) which are the benefits of these techniques for investigating severe mental disorders (schizophrenia or autism) and performing cognitive training? The first challenging question is insightfully raised in the contribution of Timmermans and Schilbach (2014) giving orientations for investigating alterations of social interaction in psychiatric disorders by the use of dual interactive eye tracking with virtual anthropomorphic avatars. Joyal, Jacob and collaborators (2014) bring concurrent and construct validities of a newly developed set of virtual faces expressing six fundamental emotions. The relevance of virtual reality was exemplified with two contributions focusing on anxiety related phenomena. Jackson et al. (2015) describe a new environment allowing to investigate empathy for dynamic FACS-coded facial expressions including pain. Based on a systematic investigation of the impact of social stimuli modalities (visual, auditory), Ruch and collaborators are able to characterize the specificity of the interpretation of laughter in people with gelotophobia (2014). On the issue of social anxiety, Aymerich-Franch et al. (2014) presented two studies in which public speaking anxiety has been correlated with avatars’ similarity of participants’ self-representations. The second issue focuses on how advances in virtual reality may benefit to cognitive and behavioral therapies in psychiatry. These interventions share a common framework that articulates thoughts, feelings or emotions and behaviors and proposes gradual modification of each of these levels thanks to thought and schema analysis, stress reduction procedures, etc. They were observed to be somehow useful for the treatment of depression, stress disorders, phobias, and are gaining some authority in personality disorders and addictions. The main asset of new technologies is the possibility to control the characteristics of symptom-eliciting stimuli/situations, and more precisely the degree to which immersion is enforced. For example, Baus and Bouchard (2014) provide a review on the extension of virtual reality exposure-based therapy toward recently described augmented reality exposure-based therapy in individuals with phobias. Concerning substance dependence disorders, Hone-Blanchet et collaborators (2014) present another review on how virtual reality can be an asset for both therapy and craving assessment stressing out the possibilities to simulate social interactions associated with drug seeking behaviors and even peers’ pressure to consume. The last issue this Frontiers’ topic deals with encompasses the questions raised by social cognitive training or remediation in severe and chronic mental disorders (autistic disorders, schizophrenia). Here, therapies are based on drill and practice or strategy shaping procedures, and, most of the time, share an errorless learning of repeated cognitive challenges. Computerized methods were early proposed for that they do, effortlessly and with limited costs, repetitive stimulations. While, repetition was incompatible with realism in the social cognitive domain, recent advances provide both immersion and full control over stimuli. Georgescu and al. (2014) exhaustively reviews the use of virtual characters to assess and train non-verbal communication in high-functioning autism (HFA). Grynszpan and Nadel (2015) present an original eye-tracking method to reveal the link between gaze patterns and pragmatic abilities again in HFA. About schizophrenia, Oker and collaborators (2015) discuss and report some insights on how an affective and reactive virtual agents might be useful to assess and remediate several defects of social cognitive disorders. About assessment within virtual avatars on schizophrenia, Park et al., (2014) focused on effect of perceived intimacy on social decision making with schizophrenia patients. Regarding schizophrenia remediation, Peyroux and Franck (2014) presented a new method named RC2S which is a cognitive remediation program to improve social cognition in schizophrenia and related disorders. To conclude briefly, while it is largely acknowledged that social interaction can be studied as a topic of its own, all the contributions demonstrate the added value of expressive virtual agents and affective computing techniques for the experimentation. It also appears that the use of virtual reality is at the very beginning of a new scientific endeavor in cognitive sciences and medicine.