Race Police And The Making Of A Political Identity

Author: Edward J. Escobar
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520920781
Size: 17.77 MB
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In June 1943, the city of Los Angeles was wrenched apart by the worst rioting it had seen to that point in the twentieth century. Incited by sensational newspaper stories and the growing public hysteria over allegations of widespread Mexican American juvenile crime, scores of American servicemen, joined by civilians and even police officers, roamed the streets of the city in search of young Mexican American men and boys wearing a distinctive style of dress called a Zoot Suit. Once found, the Zoot Suiters were stripped of their clothes, beaten, and left in the street. Over 600 Mexican American youths were arrested. The riots threw a harsh light upon the deteriorating relationship between the Los Angeles Mexican American community and the Los Angeles Police Department in the 1940s. In this study, Edward J. Escobar examines the history of the relationship between the Los Angeles Police Department and the Mexican American community from the turn of the century to the era of the Zoot Suit Riots. Escobar shows the changes in the way police viewed Mexican Americans, increasingly characterizing them as a criminal element, and the corresponding assumption on the part of Mexican Americans that the police were a threat to their community. The broader implications of this relationship are, as Escobar demonstrates, the significance of the role of the police in suppressing labor unrest, the growing connection between ideas about race and criminality, changing public perceptions about Mexican Americans, and the rise of Mexican American political activism.

Latino History And Culture

Author: David J. Leonard
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317466462
Size: 77.90 MB
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Latinos are the fastest growing population in America today. This two-volume encyclopedia traces the history of Latinos in the United States from colonial times to the present, focusing on their impact on the nation in its historical development and current culture. "Latino History and Culture" covers the myriad ethnic groups that make up the Latino population. It explores issues such as labor, legal and illegal immigration, traditional and immigrant culture, health, education, political activism, art, literature, and family, as well as historical events and developments. A-Z entries cover eras, individuals, organizations and institutions, critical events in U.S. history and the impact of the Latino population, communities and ethnic groups, and key cities and regions. Each entry includes cross references and bibliographic citations, and a comprehensive index and illustrations augment the text.

Latino Police Officers In The United States

Author: Martin Guevara Urbina
Publisher: Charles C Thomas Publisher
ISBN: 039808145X
Size: 13.88 MB
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Considering the long-lasting and complicated history of U.S. race and ethnic relations, the multiple array of issues currently confronting both ethnic and racial communities, and the shifting trends in the ethnic/racial landscape, this book seeks to provide a comprehensive account of the simultaneous interaction of pressing historical and contemporary forces shaping the Latino experience as well as police-minority relations to better understand the current state of policing and gain further insight into the future role of Latino police in American law enforcement across the country. Delineating the confines of policing a highly diverse and multicultural society in the twenty-first century, this book conjoins historical, theoretical, and empirical research–placing Latino policing within a broader law enforcement and community context. Major topics include the need for Latino police officers; employment of Latino officers by federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies; Chicano police officers working in the Latino community; Latino officers, policy, practice, and ethnic realities; Mexican American law enforcement; bridging the gaps, future research, and change in American institutions; policy recommendations toward a new police force; and the future of Latino officers in the American police. Additional issues highlighted include racial/ethnic profiling, police brutality, underpolicing, and overpolicing which challenge the quest for representation, equality, justice, and due process. Finally, the contributing authors demonstrate that the lack of knowledge on Latino police and the overall American police is not inevitable, and thus the book concludes with policy and research recommendations to help bridge this long-neglected void; ultimately, the creation of a new police force for the twenty-first century. The text represents a most timely and essential tool for all levels of policing, law enforcement administrators, criminal justice educators, civic managers, criminologists, sociologists, and others vested in police reform.

From Arrival To Incorporation

Author: Elliott Barkan
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814799604
Size: 50.59 MB
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The racially charged stereotype of "welfare queen"—an allegedly promiscuous waster who uses her children as meal tickets funded by tax-payers—is a familiar icon in modern America, but as Gunja SenGupta reveals in From Slavery to Poverty, her historical roots run deep. For, SenGupta argues, the language and institutions of poor relief and reform have historically served as forums for inventing and negotiating identity. Mining a broad array of sources on nineteenth-century New York City’s interlocking network of private benevolence and municipal relief, SenGupta shows that these institutions promoted a racialized definition of poverty and citizenship. But they also offered a framework within which working poor New Yorkers—recently freed slaves and disfranchised free blacks, Afro-Caribbean sojourners and Irish immigrants, sex workers and unemployed laborers, and mothers and children—could challenge stereotypes and offer alternative visions of community. Thus, SenGupta argues, long before the advent of the twentieth-century welfare state, the discourse of welfare in its nineteenth-century incarnation created a space to talk about community, race, and nation; about what it meant to be “American,” who belonged, and who did not. Her work provides historical context for understanding why today the notion of "welfare"—with all its derogatory “un-American” connotations—is associated not with middle-class entitlements like Social Security and Medicare, but rather with programs targeted at the poor, which are wrongly assumed to benefit primarily urban African Americans.

Mexican Americans And Sports

Author: Jorge Iber
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585445523
Size: 10.70 MB
Format: PDF
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For at least a century, across the United States, Mexican American athletes have actively participated in community-based, interscholastic, and professional sports. The people of the ranchos and the barrios have used sport for recreation, leisure, and community bonding. Until now, though, relatively few historians have focused on the sports participation of Latinos, including the numerically preponderant Mexican Americans. This volume gathers an important collection of such studies, arranged in rough chronological order, spanning the period from the late 1920s through the present. They survey and analyze sporting experiences and organizations, as well as their impact on communal and individual lives. Contributions spotlight diverse fields of athletic endeavor: baseball, football, soccer, boxing, track, and softball. Mexican Americans and Sports contributes to the emerging understanding of the value of sport to minority populations in communities throughout the United States. Those interested in sports history will benefit from the book’s focus on under-studied Mexican American participation, and those interested in Mexican American history will welcome the insight into this aspect of the group’s social history.

A World Of Its Own

Author: Matt Garcia
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 0807898937
Size: 42.24 MB
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Tracing the history of intercultural struggle and cooperation in the citrus belt of Greater Los Angeles, Matt Garcia explores the social and cultural forces that helped make the city the expansive and diverse metropolis that it is today. As the citrus-growing regions of the San Gabriel and Pomona Valleys in eastern Los Angeles County expanded during the early twentieth century, the agricultural industry there developed along segregated lines, primarily between white landowners and Mexican and Asian laborers. Initially, these communities were sharply divided. But Los Angeles, unlike other agricultural regions, saw important opportunities for intercultural exchange develop around the arts and within multiethnic community groups. Whether fostered in such informal settings as dance halls and theaters or in such formal organizations as the Intercultural Council of Claremont or the Southern California Unity Leagues, these interethnic encounters formed the basis for political cooperation to address labor discrimination and solve problems of residential and educational segregation. Though intercultural collaborations were not always successful, Garcia argues that they constitute an important chapter not only in Southern California's social and cultural development but also in the larger history of American race relations.

From Coveralls To Zoot Suits

Author: Elizabeth R. Escobedo
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 1469602067
Size: 45.51 MB
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During World War II, unprecedented employment avenues opened up for women and minorities in U.S. defense industries at the same time that massive population shifts and the war challenged Americans to rethink notions of race. At this extraordinary historical moment, Mexican American women found new means to exercise control over their lives in the home, workplace, and nation. In From Coveralls to Zoot Suits, Elizabeth R. Escobedo explores how, as war workers and volunteers, dance hostesses and zoot suiters, respectable young ladies and rebellious daughters, these young women used wartime conditions to serve the United States in its time of need and to pursue their own desires. But even after the war, as Escobedo shows, Mexican American women had to continue challenging workplace inequities and confronting family and communal resistance to their broadening public presence. Highlighting seldom heard voices of the "Greatest Generation," Escobedo examines these contradictions within Mexican families and their communities, exploring the impact of youth culture, outside employment, and family relations on the lives of women whose home-front experiences and everyday life choices would fundamentally alter the history of a generation.

Encyclopedia Of Race Ethnicity And Society

Author: Richard T. Schaefer
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412926947
Size: 28.22 MB
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This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area

Mexican Chicago

Author: Gabriela F. Arredondo
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252074971
Size: 45.13 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Becoming Mexican in early-twentieth-century Chicago