Refining Used Lubricating Oils

Author: James Speight
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 146655150X
Size: 33.87 MB
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Used lubricating oil is a valuable resource. However, it must be re-refined mainly due to the accumulation of physical and chemical contaminants in the oil during service. Refining Used Lubricating Oils describes the properties of used lubricating oils and presents ways these materials can be re-refined and converted into useful lubricants as well as other products. It provides an up-to-date review of most of the processes for used lubricating oil refining that have been proposed or implemented in different parts of the world, and addresses feasibility and criteria for selecting a particular process. The book begins with an overview of lubricating oil manufacturing, both petroleum-based and synthetic-based. It reviews the types and properties of lubricating oils and discusses the characteristics and potential of used lubricating oils. The authors describe the basic steps of used oil treatment including dehydration, distillation or solvent extraction, and finishing. They explore the combustion of used oil for use as fuel, covering chemistry and equipment, fuel oil properties, and combustion emissions. The book considers alternative processing options such as refinery processing and re-refining. It also reviews the major refining processes that have been suggested over the years for used oil. These include acid/clay, simple distillation, combinations of distillation and hydrogenation, solvent extraction, filtration, and coking processes. The book addresses economic, life cycle assessment, and other criteria for evaluating the attractiveness of an oil recycling project, examining various costs and presenting an economic evaluation method using an Excel spreadsheet that can be downloaded from the publisher’s website. The book concludes with a chapter offering insights on how to choose the most suitable process technology.

Design Aspects Of Used Lubricating Oil Re Refining

Author: Firas Awaja
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080462646
Size: 74.46 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Design Aspects of Used Lubricating Oil Re-Refining presents a feasible and comprehensive technology for recycling of used lubricating oils. This book discusses efficient and effective ways of reusing lubricating oil which, if implemented, will result in a better quality of life, the stability of the environment, the health of national economies and better relationships between nations. It presents essential experimental results for process designers and engineers to establish a complete process design. The conditions and behaviour in each step in the re-refining process, (dehydration, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, and vacuum distillation) are examined in order to discover ways to recover and reuse wastes that are produced by lubricating oils. •Addresses and demonstrates the current knowledge of the process behaviour and re-refining technology of used lubricating oils •Introduces background information on the lubrication, oil recycling industry outlining the major manufacturers and detailing their processes •Contains 94 figures and 22 tables that on results regarding the re-refining process behaviour of used lubricating oil

Design Aspects Of Used Lubricating Oil Re Refining

Author: Firas Awaja
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080462646
Size: 66.99 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Design Aspects of Used Lubricating Oil Re-Refining presents a feasible and comprehensive technology for recycling of used lubricating oils. This book discusses efficient and effective ways of reusing lubricating oil which, if implemented, will result in a better quality of life, the stability of the environment, the health of national economies and better relationships between nations. It presents essential experimental results for process designers and engineers to establish a complete process design. The conditions and behaviour in each step in the re-refining process, (dehydration, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, and vacuum distillation) are examined in order to discover ways to recover and reuse wastes that are produced by lubricating oils. •Addresses and demonstrates the current knowledge of the process behaviour and re-refining technology of used lubricating oils •Introduces background information on the lubrication, oil recycling industry outlining the major manufacturers and detailing their processes •Contains 94 figures and 22 tables that on results regarding the re-refining process behaviour of used lubricating oil

Lubricant Base Oil And Wax Processing

Author: Avilino Sequeira
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824792565
Size: 15.88 MB
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Provides state-of-the-art information on all processes currently used to manufacture lubricant base oils and waxes-offering practical, timesaving solutions for specific on-the-job problems. Furnishes helpful lists of conversion factors, construction cost data, and process licensors, as well as a glossary of essential petroleum processing terms.

Waste Engine Oils

Author: Francois Audibert
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080465173
Size: 54.46 MB
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Waste Engine Oils presents a complete description of the field of engine used oils, widely collected in the networks of services-stations and garages. It describes the manufacture of base oils in refineries, and mentions the main additives playing an essential role in the quality of the marketed finished oils. The organization of the different systems of collecting in order to obtain a waste oil regenerable or used as fuel are explained. This book covers the main operations of physical and chemical treatments required in waste oil regeneration by covering the fundamental principles techniques such as vacuum distillation, solvent deasphalting, and ultrafiltration. A wide part is dedicated to applications with the description of about twenty processes. In addition, the book describes several types of energetic valorizations which concern a quite important fraction of the collected oil volume. * Comprehensive approach of the waste oil valorization * Overview of chemical engineering operations applied to waste oil * Objective view of the given information on a subject giving rise to competitiveness between the two routes of volorization

Process Chemistry Of Lubricant Base Stocks

Author: Thomas R. Lynch
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420020540
Size: 47.13 MB
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Advances in processing methods are not only improving the quality and yield of lubricant base stocks, they are also reducing the dependence on more expensive crude oil starting materials. Process Chemistry of Lubricant Base Stocks provides a comprehensive understanding of the chemistry behind the processes involved in petroleum base stock production from crude oil fractions. This book examines hydroprocessing technologies that, driven by the demand for higher performance in finished lubricants, have transformed processing treatments throughout the industry. The author relates the properties of base stocks to their chemical composition and describes the process steps used in their manufacture. The book highlights catalytic processes, including hydrocracking, hydrofinishing, and catalytic dewaxing. It also covers traditional solvent-based separation methods used to remove impurities, enhance performance, and improve oxidation resistance. The final chapters discuss the production of Food Grade white oils and paraffins and the gas-to-liquids processes used to produce highly paraffinic base stocks via Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. Process Chemistry of Lubricant Base Stocks provides historical and conceptual background to the technologies used to make base stocks, thorough references, and a unique emphasis on chemical, not just engineering, aspects of lubricant processing—making this book an ideal and practical reference for scientists across a wide range of disciplines.

Developments In Lubricant Technology

Author: S. P. Srivastava
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118907868
Size: 67.26 MB
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Provides a fundamental understanding of lubricants and lubricant technology including emerging lubricants such as synthetic and environmentally friendly lubricants • Teaches the reader to understand the role of technology involved in the manufacture of lubricants • Details both major industrial oils and automotive oils for various engines • Covers emerging lubricant technology such as synthetic and environmentally friendly lubricants • Discusses lubricant blending technology, storage, re-refining and condition monitoring of lubricant in equipment

The Refinery Of The Future

Author: James G. Speight
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 9781437778526
Size: 37.27 MB
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As feedstocks to refineries change, there must be an accompanying change in refinery technology. This means a movement from conventional means of refining heavy feedstocks using (typically) coking technologies to more innovative processes that will coax the last drips of liquid fuels from the feedstock. This book presents the evolution of refinery processes during the last century and as well as the means by which refinery processes will evolve during the next three-to-five decades. Chapters contain material relevant to (1) comparisons of current feedstocks with heavy oil and bio-feedstocks; (2) evolution of refineries since the 1950s, (3) properties and refinability of heavy oil and bio-feedstocks, (4) thermal processes vs. hydroprocesses, and (5) evolution of products to match the environmental market. Process innovations that have influenced refinery processing over the past three decades are presented, as well as the relevant patents that have the potential for incorporation into future refineries. • Comparison of current feedstocks with heavy oil and bio-feedstocks. • Evolution of refineries over the past three decades. • Properties and refinability of heavy oil and bio-feedstocks. • Thermal processes vs. Hydroprocesses. • Evolution of products to match the environmental market. Investigates the engineering and plant design challenges presented by heavy oil and bio-feedstocks Explores the legislatory and regulatory climate, including increasingly stringent environmental requirements Examines the trade-offs of thermal processes vs. hydroprocesses

Biolubricants

Author: Jan C.J. Bart
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 085709632X
Size: 29.90 MB
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Lubricants are essential in engineering, however more sustainable formulations are needed to avoid adverse effects on the ecosystem. Bio-based lubricant formulations present a promising solution. Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of this important subject. Initial chapters address the principles of lubrication, before systematically reviewing fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants. Further chapters describe catalytic, (bio) chemical functionalisation processes for transformation of feedstocks into commercial products, product development, relevant legislation, life cycle assessment, major product groups and specific performance criteria in all major applications. Final chapters consider markets for biolubricants, issues to consider when selecting and using a lubricant, lubricant disposal and future trends. With its distinguished authors, Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive reference for an industrial audience of oil formulators and lubrication engineers, as well as researchers and academics with an interest in the subject. It provides an essential overview of scientific and technological developments enabling the cost-effective improvement of biolubricants, something that is crucial for the green future of the lubricant industry. A comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of bio-based lubricant formulations Addresses the principles of lubrication Reviews fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants

Oil Field Chemicals

Author: Johannes Fink
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080497570
Size: 64.19 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Oil field chemicals are gaining increasing importance, as the resources of crude oil are decreasing. An increasing demand of more sophisticated methods in the exploitation of the natural resources emerges for this reason. This book reviews the progress in the area of oil field chemicals and additives of the last decade from a rather chemical view. The material presented is a compilation from the literature by screening critically approximately 20,000 references. The text is ordered according to applications, just in the way how the jobs are emerging in practice. It starts with drilling, goes to productions and ends with oil spill. Several chemicals are used in multiple disciplines, and to those separate chapters are devoted. Two index registers are available, an index of chemical substances and a general index. * Gives an introduction to the chemically orientated petroleum engineer. * Provides the petroleum engineer involved with research and development with a quick reference tool. * Covers interdisciplinary matter, i.e. connects petroleum recovery and handling with chemical aspects.