Streptomyces In Nature And Medicine

Author: David A. Hopwood
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199722280
Size: 42.92 MB
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This is an insiders account of 50 years of genetic studies of the soil-inhabiting microbes that produce most of the antibiotics used to treat infections, as well as anti-cancer, anti-parasitic and immunosuppressant drugs. The book begins by describing how these microbes the actinomycetes were discovered in the latter part of the nineteenth century, but remained a Cinderella group until, in the 1940s, they shot to prominence with the discovery of streptomycin, the first effective treatment for tuberculosis and only the second antibiotic, after penicillin, to become a medical marvel. There followed a massive effort over several decades to find further treatments for infectious diseases and cancer, tempered by the rise of antibiotic resistance consequent on antibiotic misuse and over-use. The book goes on to describe the discovery of gene exchange in the actinomycetes in the context of the rise of microbial genetics in the mid-20th century, leading to determination of the complete DNA sequence of a model member of the group at the turn of the millennium. There follow chapters in which the intricate molecular machinery that adapts the organisms metabolism and development to life in the soil, including antibiotic production, is illuminated by the DNA blueprint. Then come an up-to-the minute account of the use of genetic engineering to make novel, hybrid, antibiotics, and a topical description of techniques to learn the roles of the thousands of genes in a genome sequence, throwing a powerful light on the biology of the organisms and their harnessing for increasing antibiotic productivity. In the final chapter we return to the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis and leprosy, the first actinomycetes to be discovered, and how methodology, in part derived from the study of the streptomycetes, is being applied to understand and control these still deadly pathogens.

Antibiotic Discovery And Development

Author: Thomas J. Dougherty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461414008
Size: 75.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume covers all aspects of the antibiotic discovery and development process through Phase II/III. The contributors, a group of highly experienced individuals in both academics and industry, include chapters on the need for new antibiotic compounds, strategies for screening for new antibiotics, sources of novel synthetic and natural antibiotics, discovery phases of lead development and optimization, and candidate compound nominations into development. Beyond discovery , the handbook will cover all of the studies to prepare for IND submission: Phase I (safety and dose ranging), progression to Phase II (efficacy), and Phase III (capturing desired initial indications). This book walks the reader through all aspects of the process, which has never been done before in a single reference. With the rise of antibiotic resistance and the increasing view that a crisis may be looming in infectious diseases, there are strong signs of renewed emphasis in antibiotic research. The purpose of the handbook is to offer a detailed overview of all aspects of the problem posed by antibiotic discovery and development.

Complex Enzymes In Microbial Natural Product Biosynthesis Part A Overview Articles And Peptides

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080923356
Size: 45.93 MB
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Microbial natural products have been an important traditional source of valuable antibiotics and other drugs but interest in them waned in the 1990s when big pharma decided that their discovery was no longer cost-effective and concentrated instead on synthetic chemistry as a source of novel compounds, often with disappointing results. Moreover understanding the biosynthesis of complex natural products was frustratingly difficult. With the development of molecular genetic methods to isolate and manipulate the complex microbial enzymes that make natural products, unexpected chemistry has been revealed and interest in the compounds has again flowered. This two-volume treatment of the subject will showcase the most important chemical classes of complex natural products: the peptides, made by the assembly of short chains of amino acid subunits, and the polyketides, assembled from the joining of small carboxylic acids such as acetate and malonate. In both classes, variation in sub-unit structure, number and chemical modification leads to an almost infinite variety of final structures, accounting for the huge importance of the compounds in nature and medicine. * Gathers tried and tested methods and techniques from top players in the field. * In depth coverage of ribosomally-synthesised and Non-ribosomally-synthesised peptides. * Provides an extremely useful reference for the experienced research scientist.

Microbial Linear Plasmids

Author: Friedhelm Meinhardt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540720251
Size: 79.29 MB
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A book that constitutes the first attempt to comprehensively assemble current knowledge of different types of such elements, highlight recent developments in the field, and challenge the distinction between viruses and linear plasmids. Linear plasmids of microbes represent a heterogenous group of extrachromosomal genetic elements initially assumed to be rare and peculiar. However, we now know that they are fairly frequently occurring plasmids in bacterial and eukaryotic species. Viral strategies to avoid shortening of the linear molecules during replication imply a common ancestry.

Complex Enzymes In Microbial Natural Product Biosynthesis Part B Polyketides Aminocoumarins And Carbohydrates

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080923369
Size: 52.16 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Microbial natural products have been an important traditional source of valuable antibiotics and other drugs but interest in them waned in the 1990s when big pharma decided that their discovery was no longer cost-effective and concentrated instead on synthetic chemistry as a source of novel compounds, often with disappointing results. Moreover understanding the biosynthesis of complex natural products was frustratingly difficult. With the development of molecular genetic methods to isolate and manipulate the complex microbial enzymes that make natural products, unexpected chemistry has been revealed and interest in the compounds has again flowered. This two-volume treatment of the subject will showcase the most important chemical classes of complex natural products: the peptides, made by the assembly of short chains of amino acid subunits, and the polyketides, assembled from the joining of small carboxylic acids such as acetate and malonate. In both classes, variation in sub-unit structure, number and chemical modification leads to an almost infinite variety of final structures, accounting for the huge importance of the compounds in nature and medicine. * Gathers tried and tested methods and techniques from top players in the field. * Provides an extremely useful reference for the experienced research scientist. * Covers biosynthesis of Polyketides, Tarpenoids, Aminocoumarins and Crabohydrates

Reprogramming Microbial Metabolic Pathways

Author: Xiaoyuan Wang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400750552
Size: 73.75 MB
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Metabolic engineering has been developed over the past 20 years to become an important tool for the rational engineering of industrial microorganisms. This book has a particular interest in the methods and applications of metabolic engineering to improve the production and yield of a variety of different metabolites. The overall goal is to achieve a better understanding of the metabolism in different microorganisms, and provide a rational basis to reprogram microorganisms for improved biochemical production.

Microbial Applications Vol 2

Author: Vipin Chandra Kalia
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319526693
Size: 78.70 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This contributed volume provides insights into multiple applications using microbes to promote productivity in agriculture, to produce biochemicals or to respond to challenges in biomedicine. It highlights the microbial production of nanocompounds with medical functionality alongside new anti-mycobacterial strategies, and introduces plant-growth-promoting Rhizobacteria as well as the correlation between biofilm formation and crop productivity. Further, the authors illustrate the green synthesis of biochemical compounds, such as hydroxamid acid or biosurfactants, using microbial and fungal enzymes. It inspires young researchers and experienced scientists in the field of microbiology to explore the combined use of green, white and red biotechnology for industrial purposes, which will be one of the central topics for future generations.