Streptomyces In Nature And Medicine

Author: David A. Hopwood
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199722280
Size: 77.44 MB
Format: PDF
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This is an insiders account of 50 years of genetic studies of the soil-inhabiting microbes that produce most of the antibiotics used to treat infections, as well as anti-cancer, anti-parasitic and immunosuppressant drugs. The book begins by describing how these microbes the actinomycetes were discovered in the latter part of the nineteenth century, but remained a Cinderella group until, in the 1940s, they shot to prominence with the discovery of streptomycin, the first effective treatment for tuberculosis and only the second antibiotic, after penicillin, to become a medical marvel. There followed a massive effort over several decades to find further treatments for infectious diseases and cancer, tempered by the rise of antibiotic resistance consequent on antibiotic misuse and over-use. The book goes on to describe the discovery of gene exchange in the actinomycetes in the context of the rise of microbial genetics in the mid-20th century, leading to determination of the complete DNA sequence of a model member of the group at the turn of the millennium. There follow chapters in which the intricate molecular machinery that adapts the organisms metabolism and development to life in the soil, including antibiotic production, is illuminated by the DNA blueprint. Then come an up-to-the minute account of the use of genetic engineering to make novel, hybrid, antibiotics, and a topical description of techniques to learn the roles of the thousands of genes in a genome sequence, throwing a powerful light on the biology of the organisms and their harnessing for increasing antibiotic productivity. In the final chapter we return to the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis and leprosy, the first actinomycetes to be discovered, and how methodology, in part derived from the study of the streptomycetes, is being applied to understand and control these still deadly pathogens.

Medicinal Natural Products

Author: Paul M. Dewick
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119964571
Size: 64.74 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach, Third Edition, provides a comprehensive and balanced introduction to natural products from a biosynthetic perspective, focussing on the metabolic sequences leading to various classes of natural products. The book builds upon fundamental chemical principles and guides the reader through a wealth of diverse natural metabolites with particular emphasis on those used in medicine. There have been rapid advances in biosynthetic understanding over the past decade through enzymology, gene isolation and genetic engineering. Medicinal Natural Products has been extended and fully updated in this new edition to reflect and explain these developments and other advances in the field. It retains the user-friendly style and highly acclaimed features of previous editions: a comprehensive treatment of plant, microbial, and animal natural products in one volume extensive use of chemical schemes with annotated mechanistic explanations cross-referencing to emphasize links and similarities boxed topics giving further details of medicinal materials, covering sources, production methods, use as drugs, semi-synthetic derivatives and synthetic analogues, and modes of action Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach, Third Edition, is an invaluable textbook for students of pharmacy, pharmacognosy, medicinal chemistry, biochemistry and natural products chemistry.

Streptomyces

Author: Paul Dyson
Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press
ISBN: 1904455778
Size: 18.36 MB
Format: PDF
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Streptomycetes are unusually complex bacteria that are abundant in soil. They grow as branching filaments and form chains of spores. Most importantly, they have an extraordinary ability to make antibiotics, for which they are the main industrial source, as well as other metabolites with medicinal properties. In recent years, the search for new antibiotics and other drugs in streptomycetes has been augmented by genomic studies, genome mining, and new biotechnological approaches. With contributions from some of the leading scientists in the field, this book documents recent research and development in streptomycetes genomics, physiology, and metabolism. With a focus on biotechnology and genomics, the book provides an excellent source of up-to-date information. Topics include: genome architecture * conjugative genetic elements * differentiation * protein secretion * central carbon metabolic pathways * regulation of nitrogen assimilation * phosphate control of metabolism * gamma-butyrolactones and their role in antibiotic regulation * clavulanic acid and clavams * genome-guided exploration * gene clusters for bioactive natural products * genomics of cytochromes p450. The book is essential reading for research scientists, biotechnologists, graduate students, and other professionals involved in streptomycetes research, antibiotic and antimicrobial development, drug discovery, soil microbiology and related fields. It is a recommended text for all microbiology laboratories.

Natural Products

Author: Lixin Zhang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592599761
Size: 39.86 MB
Format: PDF
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A fresh examination of the past successes of natural products as medicines and their new future from both conventional and new technologies. High-performance liquid chromatography profiling, combinatorial synthesis, genomics, proteomics, DNA shuffling, bioinformatics, and genetic manipulation all now make it possible to rapidly evaluate the activities of extracts as well as purified components derived from microbes, plants, and marine organisms. The authors apply these methods to new natural product drug discoveries, to microbial diversity, to specific groups of products (Chinese herbal drugs, antitumor drugs from microbes and plants, terpenoids, and arsenic compounds), and to specific sources (the sea, rainforest, and endophytes). These new opportunities show how research and development trends in the pharmaceutical industry can advance to include both synthetic compounds and natural products, and how this paradigm shift can be more productive and efficacious.

Pills Power And Policy

Author: Dominique A. Tobbell
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520271130
Size: 60.95 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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"Tobbell analyzes the political and economic history of the alignment of the pharmaceutical industry, academic institutions and their faculty and organized medicine. This book is essential reading for policymakers and their staff as well as persons who study the history of health policy and those who contribute to it through medical research, advocacy and journalism. " -Daniel Fox, author of The Convergence of Science and Governance: Research, Health Policy, and American States "Dominique Tobbell’s vivid, balanced and probing account of pharmaceutical politics is a significant, needed analysis of the relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, university researchers, the medical profession and government in the Cold War period. More than this, Pills, Power, and Policy shows why it continues to be difficult to agree in the United States on the relative roles of corporate enterprise, government regulation, technological innovation, freedom to prescribe, and consumer marketing and protection, all played out against the rising costs of health care. Timely and thought-provoking."--Rosemary A. Stevens. DeWitt Wallace Distinguished Scholar, Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College "A superb and compelling account of the creation of one of America’s most reviled entities: Big Pharma. With clarity and subtlety, Pills, Power, and Policy weaves together the political, economic, and the medical to reveal the entangled history behind our modern pharmaceutical predicament."--Andrea Tone, Ph.D., Professor of History & Canada Research Chair in the Social History of Medicine, McGill University “Pills, Power and Policy provides an outstanding description and analysis of the evolution of drug policy. It is an extremely important contribution to our understanding of the political, scientific, and economic nature of pharmaceutical regulation." -Daniel S. Greenberg, Washington journalist and author of Science, Money and Politics: Political Triumph and Ethical Erosion

The Nobel Prize Winning Discoveries In Infectious Diseases

Author: David Rifkind
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459578
Size: 13.87 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book presents the 24 discoveries in infectious diseases that have merited Nobel Prize recognition since the inception of the awards in 1901. Grouped according to biological groups rather than chronology, each discovery includes a biographical sketch of the laureate(s), a description of the research, and a summary of the current status of the field. In addition, consideration is given to the relevance of the research on the general field of biology and medicine.

Fermentation Microbiology And Biotechnology Third Edition

Author: E. M. T. El-Mansi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439855811
Size: 62.27 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition explores and illustrates the diverse array of metabolic pathways employed for the production of primary and secondary metabolites as well as biopharmaceuticals. This updated and expanded edition addresses the whole spectrum of fermentation biotechnology, from fermentation kinetics and dynamics to protein and co-factor engineering. The third edition builds upon the fine pedigree of its earlier predecessors and extends the spectrum of the book to reflect the multidisciplinary and buoyant nature of this subject area. To that end, the book contains four new chapters: Functional Genomics Solid-State Fermentations Applications of Metabolomics to Microbial Cell Factories Current Trends in Culturing Complex Plant Tissues for the Production of Metabolites and Elite Genotypes Organized and written in a concise manner, the book’s accessibility is enhanced by the inclusion of definition boxes in the margins explaining any new concept or specific term. The text also contains a significant number of case studies that illustrate current trends and their applications in the field. With contributions from a global group of eminent academics and industry experts, this book is certain to pave the way for new innovations in the exploitation of microorganisms for the benefit of mankind.

The Search For Bioactive Compounds From Microorganisms

Author: Satoshi Omura
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461244129
Size: 79.14 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Biologically active compounds isolated from microorganisms continue to be vital to the development of new drugs and agricultural chemicals. This book was prepared by current and past members of the laboratory of Dr. Satoshi Omura of the Kitasato Institute in Japan. Dr. Omura and his colleagues have discovered and studied a number of important antibiotics, and in their work they have pioneered new methods for screening microbes for interesting and important compounds. This book presents strategies and methods for identifying novel molecules with several types of biological activity. In addition, the book discusses the identification of microbial compounds of agrochemical importance, presents information on chemical screening methods, and concludes with chapters on microbial strain selection, fermentation technology, and genetic engineering of antibiotic-producing microorganisms. This book will be of great interest to scientists working in the very active and competitive fields of antibiotic and agrochemical discovery.

The Biology Of The Guinea Pig

Author: Joseph E. Wagner
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 148328932X
Size: 30.10 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Biology of the Guinea Pig focuses on the use of the guinea pig as a substrate in research. This book provides a comprehensive coverage of material related to applied care and management of guinea pigs and their diseases. Topics on guinea pig behavior, genetics, specific pathogen-free technique, biomethodology, and colony husbandry are also covered. This text likewise deals with the noninduced diseases of guinea pigs and use of the guinea pig in nutrition research, otologic research, toxicology, and teratology. This publication is beneficial to the general scientific community that includes investigators using or considering the use of guinea pigs in research, veterinarians, students of veterinary medicine, professionals concerned with the care and management of guinea pigs, commercial producers of guinea pigs, and cavy fanciers.