The Development Of Arithmetic Concepts And Skills

Author: Arthur J. Baroody
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135672237
Size: 30.71 MB
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This volume focuses on two related questions that are central to both the psychology of mathematical thinking and learning and to the improvement of mathematics education: What is the nature of arithmetic expertise? How can instruction best promote it? Contributors from a variety of specialities, including cognitive, developmental, educational, and neurological psychology; mathematics education; and special education offer theoretical perspectives and much needed empirical evidence about these issues. As reported in this volume, both theory and research indicate that the nature of arithmetic expertise and how to best promote it are far more complex than conventional wisdom and many scholars, past and present, have suggested. The results of psychological, educational, and clinical studies using a wide range of arithmetic tasks and populations (including "normally" and atypically developing children, non-injured and brain-injured adults, and savants) all point to the same conclusion: The heart of arithmetic fluency, in general, and the flexible and creative use of strategies, in particular, is what is termed "adaptive expertise" (meaningful or conceptually based knowledge). The construction of adaptive expertise in mathematics is, for the first time, examined across various arithmetic topics and age groups. This book will be an invaluable resource for researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical cognition and learning (including mathematics educators, developmental and educational psychologists, and neuropsychologists), educators (including teachers, curriculum supervisors, and school administrators), and others interested in improving arithmetic instruction (including officials in national and local education departments, the media, and parents).

Using The Mathematics Literature

Author: Kristine K. Fowler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824750350
Size: 30.37 MB
Format: PDF
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This reference serves as a reader-friendly guide to every basic tool and skill required in the mathematical library and helps mathematicians find resources in any format in the mathematics literature. It lists a wide range of standard texts, journals, review articles, newsgroups, and Internet and database tools for every major subfield in mathematics and details methods of access to primary literature sources of new research, applications, results, and techniques. Using the Mathematics Literature is the most comprehensive and up-to-date resource on mathematics literature in both print and electronic formats, presenting time-saving strategies for retrieval of the latest information.

How People Learn

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309131979
Size: 41.83 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

Adding It Up

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309132848
Size: 65.24 MB
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Adding It Up explores how students in pre-K through 8th grade learn mathematics and recommends how teaching, curricula, and teacher education should change to improve mathematics learning during these critical years. The committee identifies five interdependent components of mathematical proficiency and describes how students develop this proficiency. With examples and illustrations, the book presents a portrait of mathematics learning: Research findings on what children know about numbers by the time they arrive in pre-K and the implications for mathematics instruction. Details on the processes by which students acquire mathematical proficiency with whole numbers, rational numbers, and integers, as well as beginning algebra, geometry, measurement, and probability and statistics. The committee discusses what is known from research about teaching for mathematics proficiency, focusing on the interactions between teachers and students around educational materials and how teachers develop proficiency in teaching mathematics.

Engaging Young Children In Mathematics

Author: Douglas H. Clements
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0805842101
Size: 79.47 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Engaging Young Children in Mathematics: Standards for Early Childhood Mathematics Education brings together the combined wisdom of a diverse group of experts involved with early childhood mathematics. The book originates from the landmark 2000 Conference on Standards for Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten Mathematics Education, attended by representatives from almost every state developing standards for young children's mathematics; federal government officials; mathematicians; mathematics educators; researchers from mathematics education, early childhood education, and psychology; curriculum developers; teachers; policymakers; and professionals from organizations such as the National Conference of Teachers of Mathematics and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. The main goal of the Conference was to work collectively to help those responsible for framing and implementing early childhood mathematics standards. Although it has its roots in the Conference, the expanded scope of the standards and recommendations covered in this book includes the full range of kindergarten to grade 2. The volume is organized into two main parts and an online appendix (http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/org/conference/). Part One, Major Themes and Recommendations, offers a framework for thinking about pre-kindergarten - grade 2 mathematics education and specific recommendations. Part Two, Elaboration of Major Themes and Recommendations, provides substantive detail regarding young students' understandings of mathematical ideas. Each Part includes five parallel subsections: "Standards in Early Childhood Education"; "Math Standards and Guidelines"; "Curriculum, Learning, Teaching, and Assessment"; "Professional Development"; and "Toward the Future: Implementation and Policy." As a whole the book: * presents comprehensive summaries of research that provide specific guidelines for standards, curriculum, and teaching; * takes the recent reports and recommendations for early childhood mathematics education to the next level; * integrates practical details and research throughout; and * provides a succinct, but thorough review of research on the topics, sequences, and learning trajectories that children can and should learn at each of their first years of life, with specific developmental guidelines that suggest appropriate content for each topic for each year from 2-year-olds to 7-year-olds. This is an indispensable volume for mathematics educators, researchers, curriculum developers, teachers and policymakers, including those who create standards, scope and sequences, and curricula for young children and professional teacher development materials, and students in mathematics education, early childhood trainers, teacher educators, and faculty in mathematics education.

Mathematics As A Constructive Activity

Author: Anne Watson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135630011
Size: 60.36 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book explains and demonstrates the teaching strategy of asking learners to construct their own examples of mathematical objects. The authors show that the creation of examples can involve transforming and reorganizing knowledge and that, although this is usually done by authors and teachers, if the responsibility for making examples is transferred to learners, their knowledge structures can be developed and extended. A multitude of examples to illustrate this is provided, spanning primary, secondary, and college levels. Readers are invited to learn from their own past experience augmented by tasks provided in the book, and are given direct experience of constructing examples through a collection of many tasks at many levels. Classroom stories show the practicalities of introducing such shifts in mathematics education. The authors examine how their approach relates to improving the learning of mathematics and raise future research questions. *Based on the authors' and others' theoretical and practical experience, the book includes a combination of exercises for the reader, practical applications for teaching, and solid scholarly grounding. *The ideas presented are generic in nature and thus applicable across every phase of mathematics teaching and learning. *Although the teaching methods offered are ones that engage learners imaginatively, these are also applied to traditional approaches to mathematics education; all tasks offered in the book are within conventional mathematics curriculum content. Mathematics as a Constructive Activity: Learners Generating Examples is intended for mathematics teacher educators, mathematics teachers, curriculum developers, task and test designers, and classroom researchers, and for use as a text in graduate-level mathematics education courses.

Teaching And Learning About Whole Numbers In Primary School

Author: Terezinha Nunes
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319451138
Size: 31.92 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book offers a theory for the analysis of how children learn and are taught about whole numbers. Two meanings of numbers are distinguished – the analytical meaning, defined by the number system, and the representational meaning, identified by the use of numbers as conventional signs that stand for quantities. This framework makes it possible to compare different approaches to making numbers meaningful in the classroom and contrast the outcomes of these diverse aspects of teaching. The book identifies themes and trends in empirical research on the teaching and learning of whole numbers since the launch of the major journals in mathematics education research in the 1970s. It documents a shift in focus in the teaching of arithmetic from research about teaching written algorithms to teaching arithmetic in ways that result in flexible approaches to calculation. The analysis of studies on quantitative reasoning reveals classifications of problem types that are related to different cognitive demands and rates of success in both additive and multiplicative reasoning. Three different approaches to quantitative reasoning education illustrate current thinking on teaching problem solving: teaching reasoning before arithmetic, schema-based instruction, and the use of pre-designed diagrams. The book also includes a summary of contemporary approaches to the description of the knowledge of numbers and arithmetic that teachers need to be effective teachers of these aspects of mathematics in primary school. The concluding section includes a brief summary of the major themes addressed and the challenges for the future. The new theoretical framework presented offers researchers in mathematics education novel insights into the differences between empirical studies in this domain. At the same time the description of the two meanings of numbers helps teachers distinguish between the different aims of teaching about numbers supported by diverse methods used in primary school. The framework is a valuable tool for comparing the different methods and identifying the various assumptions about teaching and learning.

Handbook Of Educational Psychology

Author: Lyn Corno
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317420551
Size: 34.85 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The third edition of the Handbook of Educational Psychology is sponsored by Division 15 of the American Psychological Association. In this volume, thirty chapters address new developments in theory and research methods while honoring the legacy of the field’s past. A diverse group of recognized scholars within and outside the U.S. provide integrative reviews and critical syntheses of developments in the substantive areas of psychological inquiry in education, functional processes for learning, learner readiness and development, building knowledge and subject matter expertise, and the learning and task environment. New chapters in this edition cover topics such as learning sciences research, latent variable models, data analytics, neuropsychology, relations between emotion, motivation, and volition (EMOVO), scientific literacy, sociocultural perspectives on learning, dialogic instruction, and networked learning. Expanded treatment has been given to relevant individual differences, underlying processes, and new research on subject matter acquisition. The Handbook of Educational Psychology, Third Edition, provides an indispensable reference volume for scholars in education and the learning sciences, broadly conceived, as well as for teacher educators, practicing teachers, policy makers and the academic libraries serving these audiences. It is also appropriate for graduate level courses in educational psychology, human learning and motivation, the learning sciences, and psychological research methods in education and psychology.

The Origins Of Mathematical Knowledge In Childhood

Author: Catherine Sophian
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351541749
Size: 67.56 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book examines the origins and development of children's mathematical knowledge. It contrasts the widely held view that counting is the starting point for mathematical development with an alternative comparison-of-quantities position. According to the comparison-of-quantities position, the concept of number builds upon more basic concepts of equality, inequality, and less-than and greater-than relations, which derive from comparisons between unenumerated quantities such as lengths. The concept of number combines these basic comparative concepts with the concept of a unit of measure, which allows one quantity to be described as a multiple of another. Sophian examines these alternative accounts of children's developing mathematical knowledge in the light of research: on children's counting; on their reasoning about continuous quantities such as length and area; on the development of the concept of unit; on additive and multiplicative reasoning; and on knowledge about fractions. In the closing chapters, Sophian draws out the developmental and the educational implications of the research and theory presented. Developmentally, the comparison-of-quantities position undermines the idea that numerical knowledge develops through domain-specific learning mechanisms in that it links numerical development both to physical knowledge about objects, which is the starting point for the concept of unit, and to the acquisition of linguistic number terms. Instructionally, the comparison-of-quantities perspective diverges from the counting-first perspective in that it underscores the continuity between whole-number arithmetic and fraction learning that stems from the importance of the concept of unit for both. Building on this idea, Sophian advances three instructional recommendations: First, instruction about numbers should always be grounded in thinking about quantities and how numbers represent the relations between them; second, instruction in the early years should always be guided by a long-term perspective in which current objectives are shaped by an understanding of their role in the overall course of mathematics learning; and third, instruction should be directly toward promoting the acquisition of the most general mathematical knowledge possible. The Origins of Mathematical Knowledge in Childhood is intended for researchers, professionals, and graduate students in developmental psychology, educational psychology, and mathematics education, and as a supplementary text for advanced undergraduate courses in cognitive development, educational psychology, and mathematics education.