The Encapsulation Phenomenon

Author: Yan Voloshin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319277383
Size: 36.89 MB
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This fundamental book presents the most comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in the chemistry of cage compounds. It introduces different ways of how ions and molecules can be encapsulated by three-dimensional caging ligands to form molecular and polymeric species: covalent, supramolecular, and coordination capsules. The authors introduce their classification, reactivity, and selected practical applications. Because encapsulation can isolate caged ions and molecules from external factors, the encapsulated species can exhibit unique physical and chemical properties. The resulting specific reactivity and selectivity can open up a range of applications, including chemical separation, recognition, chiral separation, catalysis, applications as sensors or probes, as molecular or supramolecular devices, or molecular carriers (cargo).A particularly strong emphasis in this book is on the summary and review of the synthesis of various types of cage compounds. Readers will find over 850 literature references summarized and clearly represented in over 600 schemes and illustrations. The book is structured by the types of caging ligands (covalent, supramolecular, or coordination capsules). The authors further arranged the chapters by ligand classes and types of encapsulated species (neutral molecules, anions, or cations). Readers will hence find an exhaustive reference resource and summary of the current state of research into encapsulated species, nowadays almost a separated realm of modern chemistry.

Cage Metal Complexes

Author: Yan Voloshin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331956420X
Size: 45.61 MB
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This fundamental book presents the most comprehensive summary of the current state in chemistry of cage metal complexes. After their previous book “The Encapsulation Phenomenon” (www.springer.com/978-3-319-27737-0) the authors in this book focus on the encapsulation of metal ions by different types of three-dimensional mono- and polynucleating caging ligands. Within these cage metal complexes, (metal) ions can be isolated from external factors. The book provides both a classification of the cage compounds and summaries of synthetic approaches. On that basis the authors then describe the unique chemical and physical properties and the resulting reactivity of the cage compounds, as well as practical and potential applications as potent topological drugs and prodrugs, antifibrillogenic agents, radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic compounds, paramagnetic probes, single-molecule magnets, electrocatalysts for hydrogen production, (photo)electronic devices, and many more. Readers will find a well-structured and concise overview, with particular emphasis on a review of synthesis and reactivity of various cage metal complexes, summarizing over 400 literature references, clearly presented in over 300 color schemes and figures.

Inclusion Chemistry With Zeolites Nanoscale Materials By Design

Author: N. Herron
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401101191
Size: 39.57 MB
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Zeolites, with their crystalline microporous structures, are cordial hosts to a wide variety of guests. However, it was the abrupt and unexpected departure of one of these guests (water) from a host (stilbite) on heating which led Cronstedt, in 1756, to coin the term "zeolite" (from the Greek meaning "boiling stone") to describe this material. Since that time, approximately 40 different naturally-occurring zeolites have been discovered on earth. Recent studies of meteorite compositions have shown that these guest-host materials (e. g. , sodalite) occur in other parts of the universe as well. However, it wasn't until the twentieth century that synthetic routes to zeolites and other non-aluminosilicate molecular sieves were discovered. In addition, with the development of X-ray diffraction and the various spectroscopies, better understanding of the nature of the cavities, cages, and channels of these materials has led to the industrial exploitation of their guest-host properties. The world of zeolites has now expanded into a greater than 2 billion pound per year business, with major applications in detergent formulations, catalysis, and as adsorbents and desiccants. Their economic impact is difficult to determine; however, the improvement in gasoline yields alone (from catalytic cracking) must account for hundreds ofbillions ofdollars in increased GDP. In this volume, we have brought together a sampling of recent developments in various areas of guest-host or inclusion chemistry in zeolites.

Highlights In Solute Solvent Interactions

Author: Wolfgang Linert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709161517
Size: 22.29 MB
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Most organic molecules retain their integrity when dissolved, and even though in such cases the effects exerted by solvents are, in the language of the coordination chemist, of the "outer sphere" kind, the choice of solvent can be critical to the successful outcome of an operation or preparation. Solubilities of reactants and products must be taken into account, and even if the organic principals in the reactions retain their integrity, many of the reagents are electrolytes, and their state of aggregation will affect their reactivity. In testifying to the importance of understanding solute-solvent interactions I draw attention to a large class of inorganic species for which the involvement in the chemical and physical properties by the solvent is even more deeply seated. It is comprised by the large body of metal atoms in low oxidation states for which solvent molecules intervene as reagents. At the same time, because the ions carry charges, the effects arising from outer sphere interactions are usually greater than they are for neutral molecules. To cite an example: when FeCb(s) is dissolved in water to form a dilute - say O. OlO- solution there is a complete reorganization of the coordination sphere of the cation. Whereas in the solid each cation is surrounded by six chloride ions, in the solution the dominant form is [Fe(H20)6]3+ followed by [Fe(H20)sCI]2+, [Fe(H20)4CI2]+, etc. in rapidly decreasing abundance.

Endohedral Fullerenes Electron Transfer And Spin

Author: Alexey A. Popov
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319470493
Size: 16.71 MB
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This book discusses recent progress in endohedral fullerenes – their production and separation techniques, as well as their characterization and properties. Furthermore, the book delves into the all-important issue of stability by investigating electron transfer between the encapsulated metal species and the carbon cage. It also reviews spin-based phenomena caused by the shielding of endohedral spin by the fullerene, and analyzes formation of the spin states by charge transfer as studied by electron spin resonance. Tuning of charge states of endohedral species and of spin states of both the cage and the cluster are explained. Finally, the book considers the recent discovery of magnetism in some endohedral fullerenes, and the potential for quantum computing.

Supramolecular Catalysis

Author: Piet W. N. M. van Leeuwen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527621792
Size: 80.48 MB
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In the past few years, supramolecular chemistry has led to new approaches in homogeneous catalysis. While host-guest chemistry had already found applications in catalysis as a result of the pioneering work carried out by Professor Ronald Breslow and Nobel prizewinner Professor Jean-Marie Lehn that began some 40 years ago, the construction of catalysts by supramolecular forces has only recently become a powerful tool. This development paves the way for large numbers of new potential catalysts that can be varied in an expedient way by changing the constituting building blocks. Written by some of the leading contributors in the field, this book is intended for both industrial and academic chemists with an interest in this area of catalysis. With its discussion of topics from ligand libraries to chirality-directed self-assembly, this is a must-have for chemists with organic, catalytic and polymer backgrounds, as well as those employing such compounds in industrial processes.

Molecular Encapsulation

Author: Udo H. Brinker
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119957109
Size: 75.72 MB
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The inclusion of small guest molecules within suitable host compounds results in constrained systems that imbue novel properties upon the incarcerated organic substrates. Supramolecular tactics are becoming widely employed and this treatise spotlights them. Often, the impact of encapsulation on product formation is substantial. The use of constrained systems offers the means to steer reactions along desired pathways. A broad overview of various supramolecular approaches aimed to manipulate chemical reactions are featured. The following topics are covered in detail: - general concepts governing the assembly of the substrate with the reaction vessel - preparation of molecular reactors - stabilization of reactive intermediates - reactions in water, in organic solvents, and in the solid state - photochemical reactions - reactions with unusual regioselectivity Molecular Encapsulation: Organic Reactions in Constrained Systems is an essential guide to the art of changing the outcome and the selectivity of a chemical reaction using nano-sized reaction vessels. It will find a place on the bookshelves of students and researchers working in the areas of supramolecular chemistry, nanotechnology, organic and pharmaceutical chemistry, and materials science as well.