The Environmental Challenges Of Nuclear Disarmament

Author: Thomas E. Baca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401141045
Size: 42.37 MB
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The end of the Cold War marked the beginning of a new era of facing the legacy of the arms race. The enormous challenge confronting us now is to strengthen the fragile nature of the new political balance. The beginning of this new historical period is characterized by mistrust, and the best way to ease these tensions is through international collaborations. Moreover, the intimate nature of close, non-invasive, collaborative work on environmental problems can help establish a secure foundation of mutual understanding and trust. Environmental projects are non-threatening to national security issues and may involve collaborations throughout the international weapons complex. Personal and individual scientific relationships quite often spearhead agreements at the government-to-government level. Environmental and nonproliferation issues are of great importance to the citizens of Russia, to the states of the Former Soviet Union, and to neighboring countries. The activities associated with decontamination and decommissioning of old facilities, environmental restoration, security enhancements, monitoring and surveillance, and risk reduction should provide a significant employment potential for scientists and engineers of the weapons complex of the Former Soviet Union.

Dismantlement And Destruction Of Chemical Nuclear And Conventional Weapons

Author: N. Schulte
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792344704
Size: 14.53 MB
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The end ofthe Cold War opened unprecedented opportunities for reductions in weapons of mass destruction. With these opportunities came new challenges, both scientific and political. Traditionally approached by different groups, the scientific, technical and political challenges are inextricably intertwined. Agreements to dismantle and destroy chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons, after having been negotiated via diplomatic channels, require the expertise of scientists associated with their development to determine the safest and most environmentally sound methods of destruction. It is in this context that representatives from sixteen countries and five international organizations were convened jointly by NATO, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany and the State Government of North Rhine Westphalia 19-21 May, 1996 in a meeting near Bonn to take stock of worldwide efforts to destroy and dismantle chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons remaining after the end ofthe Cold War. NATO support was provided under the auspices of the NATO Science Committee's Panel on Disarmament Technologies. The conference brought together the major actors involved in the dismantlement and destruction of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons, highlighted the substantial accomplishments achieved in this area and pinpointed the remaining technical obstacles still to be overcome. It also underlined the critical importance of transparency, data exchange and verification as indispensable preconditions for disarmament and cooperative security.

Safety Issues Associated With Plutonium Involvement In The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Author: Theodore A. Parish
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401145911
Size: 32.40 MB
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The "VOLGA" conferences, hosted in odd-numbered years by the Department of Theoretical and Experimental Reactor Physics of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), are some of the most prestigious technical meetings held in Russia. Traditionally, these conferences present the opportunity for reactor physicists from around the world to gather at MEPhI's holiday camp on the banks of the Volga river (near Tver) to exchange ideas and explore innovative concepts related to nuclear power development. In 1997, NATO became involved in the "VOLGA" meetings for the first time by co-sponsoring "VOLGA97" as an advanced research workshop. This workshop broke with tradition a bit in that the venue was moved from MEPhI's holiday camp to a location nearer Moscow. The workshop program was effectively organized in order to cover a broad range of topics relating to the theme of the meeting. Generally, the papers concerned safety related questions associated with utilizing both weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium in the nuclear fuel cycle, including facility requirements, licensing issues, proliferation risks, and a variety of advanced concepts for alternative fuel cycles. The program contained a total of ninety-nine papers presented in five days of sessions.

Chemical Separation Technologies And Related Methods Of Nuclear Waste Management

Author: Gregory R. Choppin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792356387
Size: 47.33 MB
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Separation technologies are of crucial importance to the goal of significantly reducing the volume of high-level nuclear waste, thereby reducing the long-term health risks to mankind. International co-operation, including the sharing of concepts and methods, as well as technology transfer, is essential in accelerating research and development in the field. The writers of this book are all internationally recognised experts in the field of separation technology, well qualified to assess and criticize the current state of separation research as well as to identify future opportunities for the application of separation technologies to the solution of nuclear waste management problems. The major emphases in the book are research opportunities in the utilization of innovative and potentially more efficient and cost effective processes for waste processing/treatment, actinide speciation/separation methods, technological processing, and environmental restoration.

Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning And Related Problems

Author: L.G. LeSage
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400917589
Size: 13.18 MB
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The Advanced Research Workshop on "Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems" was held at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia on June 19-22, 1995. On June 17 and 18, 1995 some of the workshop participants visited the Zwezdochka Shipyard at Severodvinsk which is a repair and dismantlement facility for Russian nuclear submarines. Attendance at the workshop was approximately 115 with participants from Russia, United States, France, Norway, Canada, Denmark, Sweden, Estonia, and Germany. The workshop was sponsored by the Disarmament Panel of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Science Committee. The sponsorship and the financial support of NATO is gratefully acknowledged. The workshop was organized in Russia by the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE). The efforts of many individuals from IBRAE in producing both a technically challenging workshop and an almost flawless one are also gratefully acknowledged. In addition, the support of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the State Committee of the Russian Federation on Defense Technologies, the Ministry of the Russian Federation on Atomic Energy, the Navy of the Russian Federation, and the United States Department of Energy is acknowledged. xi CURRENT STATUS OF NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DECOMMISSIONING PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DECOMMISSIONING AND RECYCLING N. I. SHUMKOV State Committee for Defense Industry (Goseomoboronprom) Moscow, Russia 1. General Description of the Problem Undoubtedly, the problem of nuclear submarine decommissioning and recycling has been worrying Russian civil and military specialists involved in development, building and operation of submarines for many years.

Nuclear Physical Methods In Radioecological Investigations Of Nuclear Test Sites

Author: Siegfried S. Hecker
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401141169
Size: 38.84 MB
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It is only with the ending of the Cold War that the issue of environmental hazards at many former nuclear testing sites around the world has attracted international scientific interest. This book discusses the environmental, ecological, and health problems associated with nuclear testing. Topics treated include dose assessment, risk, speciation and transport of radionuclides, measurement and separation of radionuclides, and remedial options. The nuclear test sites examined include the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (Kazakhstan), the Nevada test Site (USA), the Pacific atolls, and the Maralinga Test Site (Australia). The volume also discusses the additional release sites of Chelyabinsk (Russia), Chernobyl (Ukraine), Palomares (Spain), Los Alamos (USA), and others. A valuable compendium of radiological problems for a wide spectrum of readers, from non-specialist to expert.

Strategic Stability In The Post Cold War World And The Future Of Nuclear Disarmament

Author: Melvin L. Best, Jr.
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940158396X
Size: 52.49 MB
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This Report contains a Consensus Report and the papers submitted to the April 6 -10, 1995 NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Strategic Stability In The Post-Cold War World And The Future Of Nuclear Disarmament, held in Washington D. C. , United States Of America of at The Airlie Conference Center. The workshop was sponsored by the NATO Division Scientific and Environmental Affairs as part of its ongoing outreach programme to widen and deepen scientific contacts between NATO member countries and the Cooperation Partner countries of the former Warsaw Treaty Organization. The participants recognize that the collapse of the former Soviet Union has left a conceptual vacuum in the definition of a new world order. Never before have the components of world order all changed so rapidly, so deeply, or so globally. As Henry Kissinger points out, the emergence of the new world order will have answered three fundamental questions:" What are the basic units of the international order? What are their means of interacting? and What are the goals on behalf of which they interact? " The main question is whether the establishment and maintenance of an international system will turn out to be a conscious design, or the outgrowth of a test of strength. The concept of a planning framework that could shape or govern these interactions is emerging and may now be at hand. Capturing this emerging framework is the thrust of this NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop.

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

Author: Charles S. Shapiro
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 366203610X
Size: 58.61 MB
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Radionuclides produced by past nuclear weapon test explosions comprise the largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity released into the earth's atmosphere to date. This volume presents data and models about the fate of the released radionuclides and their possible effects on human health. It is divided into the following three parts: - Source Term Studies; - Dose Reconstruction; - Ecological and Health Effects, and comprises both Western and formerly secret Soviet research studies, illuminates past and current research.

Advanced Nuclear Systems Consuming Excess Plutonium

Author: E.R. Merz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400708602
Size: 76.63 MB
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A survey of recent developments in the field of plutonium disposal by the application of advanced nuclear systems, both critical and subcritical. Current national R&D plans are summarized. The actinide-fuelled critical reactors are associated with control problems, since they tend to have a small delayed neutron fraction coupled with a small Doppler effect and a positive void coefficient. Current thinking is turning to accelerator-driven subcritical systems for the transmutation of actinides. The book's conclusion is that the various systems proposed are technically feasible, even though not yet technically mature. The book presents a unique summary and evaluation of all relevant possibilities for burning surplus plutonium, presented by experts from a variety of different disciplines and interests, including the defence establishment. The obvious issue - the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons - is vital, but the matter represents a complex technological challenge that also requires an assessment in economic terms.

Nuclear Materials Safety Management

Author: Leslie J. Jardine
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792358909
Size: 34.54 MB
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LESLIE J. JARDINE Lmvrence Livermore National LaboratOlY Livermore, CA 94551 U. S. A. The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuc1ear Materials Safety held lune 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 V. S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuc1ear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuc1ear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, inc1uding vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This AR W completed discussions by experts of the nuc1ear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuc1ear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuc1ear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEV and plutonium (see Fig. 1, Opening Remarks).