The Exchange Of Words

Author: Richard Moran
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190873337
Size: 42.81 MB
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The capacity to speak is not only the ability to pronounce words, but the socially-recognized capacity to make one's words count in various ways. We rely on this capacity whenever we tell another person something and expect to be believed, and what we learn from others in this way is the basis for most of what we take ourselves to know about the world. In The Exchange of Words, Richard Moran provides a philosophical exploration of human testimony as a form of intersubjective understanding in which speakers communicate by making themselves accountable for the truth of what they say. The book brings together themes from literature, philosophy of language, moral psychology, action theory, and epistemology, for a new approach to this fundamental human phenomenon. The account developed here starts from the difference between what may be revealed in one's speech (like a regional accent) and what we explicitly claim and make ourselves answerable for. Some prominent themes include: the meaning of sincerity in speech, the nature of mutuality and how it differs from 'mind-reading', the interplay between the first-person and the second-person perspectives in conversation, and the nature of the speech act of telling and related illocutions as developed by philosophers such as J. L. Austin and Paul Grice. Everyday dialogue is the locus of a kind of intersubjective understanding that is distinctive of the transmission of reasons in human testimony, and The Exchange of Words is an original and integrated account of this basic way of being informative to and in touch with one another.

Self Consciousness

Author: Sebastian Rödl
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674024946
Size: 75.66 MB
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The topic of this book is self-consciousness, which is a kind of knowledge, namely knowledge of oneself as oneself, or self-knowledge. Rodl's thesis is that self-knowledge is not empirical; it does not spring from sensory affection. Rather, self-knowledge is knowledge from spontaneity; its object and its source are the subject's own activity, in the primary instance its acts of thinking, both theoretical and practical thinking, belief and action. As the centrality of self-consciousness can be said to be the principal thought animating Kant and his Idealist successors, the book can be read as an attempt to recover and rejuvenate the achievement of the German Idealist tradition."

No Morality No Self

Author: James Doyle
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674976509
Size: 79.61 MB
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Elizabeth Anscombe’s “Modern Moral Philosophy” and “The First Person” have become touchstones of analytic philosophy but their significance remains controversial or misunderstood. James Doyle offers a fresh interpretation of Anscombe’s theses about ethical reasoning and individual identity that reconciles seemingly incompatible points of view.

The Rationality Of Perception

Author: Susanna Siegel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198797087
Size: 49.84 MB
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An important division in the human mind is between perception and reasoning. Perceptual experiences are conscious, but much of our reasoning is unconscious. Reasoning can be better or worse, but perception is considered beyond reproach. We reason from information that we have already, butperception is a means of getting new information. The Rationality of Perception argues that these two divergent aspects of the mind become deeply intertwined when beliefs, fears, desires, or prejudice influence what we perceive. When the influences reach all the way to perceptual appearances, weface a philosophical problem: is it reasonable to strengthen what one believes, fears, or suspects, on the basis of an experience that was generated, unbeknownst to the perceiver, by those very same beliefs, fears, or suspicions? Susanna Siegel argues that it is not reasonable - even though it mayseem that way to the perceiver. Drawing on examples involving racism, emotion, self-defense law, and scientific theories, The Rationality of Perception makes the case that perception itself can be irrational. Siegel systematically distinguishes "cognitive penetration" from several other kinds of influence on perception, builds atheory of how such influences on perception determine what it's rational or irrational to believe, and uses the main conclusions to analyze perceptual manifestations of anti-black racism in the U.S. This book makes vivid the far-reaching consequences of psychological and cultural influences onperception. Its method shows how analytic philosophy, social psychology, history and politics can be mutually illuminating.

Subjective Intersubjective Objective

Author: Donald Davidson
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 9780191519222
Size: 48.70 MB
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Subjective, Intersubjective, Objective is the long-awaited third volume of philosophical writings by Donald Davidson, whose influence on philosophy since the 1960s has been deep and broad. His first two collections, published by OUP in the early 1980s, are recognized as contemporary classics. Now Davidson presents a selection of his work on knowledge, mind, and language from the 1980s and the 1990s. We all have knowledge of our own minds, knowledge of the contents of other minds, and knowledge of the shared environment. Davidson examines the nature and status of each of these three sorts of knowledge, and the connections and differences among them. Along the way he has illuminating things to say about truth, human rationality, and the relations among language, thought, and the world. This new volume offers a rich and rewarding feast for anyone interested in philosophy today, and is essential reading for anyone working on its central topics.

Authority And Estrangement

Author: Richard Moran
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691089450
Size: 53.30 MB
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Since Socrates, and through Descartes to the present day, the problems of self-knowledge have been central to philosophy's understanding of itself. Today the idea of ''first-person authority''--the claim of a distinctive relation each person has toward his or her own mental life--has been challenged from a number of directions, to the point where many doubt the person bears any distinctive relation to his or her own mental life, let alone a privileged one. In Authority and Estrangement, Richard Moran argues for a reconception of the first-person and its claims. Indeed, he writes, a more thorough repudiation of the idea of privileged inner observation leads to a deeper appreciation of the systematic differences between self-knowledge and the knowledge of others, differences that are both irreducible and constitutive of the very concept and life of the person. Masterfully blending philosophy of mind and moral psychology, Moran develops a view of self-knowledge that concentrates on the self as agent rather than spectator. He argues that while each person does speak for his own thought and feeling with a distinctive authority, that very authority is tied just as much to the disprivileging of the first-person, to its specific possibilities of alienation. Drawing on certain themes from Wittgenstein, Sartre, and others, the book explores the extent to which what we say about ourselves is a matter of discovery or of creation, the difficulties and limitations in being ''objective'' toward ourselves, and the conflicting demands of realism about oneself and responsibility for oneself. What emerges is a strikingly original and psychologically nuanced exploration of the contrasting ideals of relations to oneself and relations to others.

Practical Knowledge

Author: Kieran Setiya
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190462922
Size: 78.55 MB
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In the last forty years, action theory has revitalized moral philosophy. Philosophers have explored the nature of agency, what is involved in acting for a reason, how we know what we are doing, the role of intention, desire, and belief in motivating action, and more. At their most ambitious, philosophers have claimed that action theory is the foundation of ethics. For rationalists or constitutivists, the standards of practical reason derive from the nature of agency as a functional or teleological kind. They are no more mysterious than the standards for being a good clock or a good heart, given the function of clocks and hearts. In this collection of new and previously published essays, Kieran Setiya defends a causal theory of intentional action on which it is explained by knowledge in intention, a form of practical knowledge that transcends prior evidence. Such knowledge rests on knowing how to do the things we do. The theory is otherwise minimalist: agents need not regard their reasons as good, put means to ends, or adopt particular aims. It follows that we must reject the rationalist or constitutivist approach: the nature of agency is too thin to support the standards of practical reason. But the upshot is not nihilism. Instead, the requirement of means-end coherence is explained by the cognitive aspect of intention; and the standards of practical reason are those of ethical virtue, applied to practical thought.

Thinking And Being

Author: Irad Kimhi
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780674967892
Size: 23.66 MB
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Frege argued that psychological laws of thought--which explicate how we in fact think--must be distinguished from logical laws of thought--which impose rational requirements on thinking. Marking a radical break with Frege's legacy in analytic philosophy, Irad Kimhi's work shows that thinking and being are different manifestations of the same capacity.

Introspection And Consciousness

Author: Declan Smithies
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199744793
Size: 50.95 MB
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The topic of introspection stands at the interface between questions in epistemology about the nature of self-knowledge and questions in the philosophy of mind about the nature of consciousness. What is the nature of introspection such that it provides us with a distinctive way of knowing about our own conscious mental states? And what is the nature of consciousness such that we can know about our own conscious mental states by introspection? How should we understand the relationship between consciousness and introspective self-knowledge? Should we explain consciousness in terms of introspective self-knowledge or vice versa? Until recently, questions in epistemology and the philosophy of mind were pursued largely in isolation from one another. This volume aims to integrate these two lines of research by bringing together fourteen new essays and one reprinted essay on the relationship between introspection, self-knowledge, and consciousness.