Transatlantic Science And Technology

Author: Sabine E. Herlitschka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461443857
Size: 28.63 MB
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​​​​​​Major societal challenges of a global nature include climate change, efficient energy supply, environmental sustainability, and health care. Science & Technology Policy (S&T) policy is an essential contributor to dealing with these challenges; moreover, international cooperation and collaboration in S&T is vital to tackling these issues, since no single nation or even region is able to respond adequately by itself. Within this context, this book addresses recent developments in transatlantic S&T cooperation between the European Union and the United States. The EU-U.S. relationship dates back to the 1950s, with regular EU-U.S. Summits to assess and develop transatlantic cooperation. In the area of S&T, the EU and U.S. concluded an S&T Cooperation Agreement in 1998, renewed it in 2004, and extended it for another five years in July 2009. The research underlying this study is based on interviews with key stakeholders in the field, with an emphasis on: • potential new opportunities and new mechanisms for increased transatlantic EU – U.S. S&T cooperation under current conditions • examples of coordinated “science diplomacy” efforts • options for the development of effective joint efforts. While the project is focused on European-U.S. relationships, it also addresses issues of international S&T cooperation involving other regions, including Africa and Asia. The author highlights the urgency of S&T cooperation to address global issues, and the evolving roles of government, universities and research centers, and industry, in promoting successful strategies and programs.

Big Data In Context

Author: Thomas Hoeren
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319624600
Size: 35.98 MB
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book sheds new light on a selection of big data scenarios from an interdisciplinary perspective. It features legal, sociological and economic approaches to fundamental big data topics such as privacy, data quality and the ECJ’s Safe Harbor decision on the one hand, and practical applications such as smart cars, wearables and web tracking on the other. Addressing the interests of researchers and practitioners alike, it provides a comprehensive overview of and introduction to the emerging challenges regarding big data.All contributions are based on papers submitted in connection with ABIDA (Assessing Big Data), an interdisciplinary research project exploring the societal aspects of big data and funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.This volume was produced as a part of the ABIDA project (Assessing Big Data, 01IS15016A-F). ABIDA is a four-year collaborative project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. However the views and opinions expressed in this book reflect only the authors’ point of view and not necessarily those of all members of the ABIDA project or the Federal Ministry of Education and Research.

The Impact Of Climate Change On Our Life

Author: Abdelnaser Omran
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811077487
Size: 74.11 MB
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This book introduces the highly topical issue from many different angles, sensitizing readers to the various challenges to human life posed by climate change, identifying possible intentional and inadvertent anthropogenic factors and consequences, and seeking socially and environmentally viable solutions. The book begins by examining the impact of the climate change discussion on science, politics, economy and culture – from its historical origin in the first Club of Rome Report and its inclusion in the UN's SDGs to the Paris Agreement and beyond. Comprising 12 chapters, it analyses the factors which caused the catastrophic 2014 Kelantan flood in Malaysia, focusing on the Kuala Krai district and discusses mud architecture in Wadi Hadramout, Yemen and mitigating the expected effects of climate change on this unique architecture and cultural heritage. It also examines the economic costs of climate change on health and the increased burden on individual expenditures and national health systems. The role of climate change in the water-energy nexus and efforts to increase efficiency in energy and water end-use to increase Queensland’s agricultural sector’s resilience in Australia is addressed, as is water security and climate change issues in developing countries and the potential of partnership procurement strategies for managing sustainable urban water supply in Nigerian cities. It also includes a chapter offering a new approach to waste management, exploring to what extent waste can complicate our daily actions and influence environmental decay, and recommending that renewable materials be sorted and separated from other types of materials to avoid cross-contamination, to increase the value of the materials, and to ease the process of manufacturing. Subsequent chapters identify factors sustaining the municipal solid waste management and practices in Ajdabiya city in Libya, and look at accounting disclosure remedies by exploring areas in which sustainability reporting could expand beyond corporate environmental reporting to additional disclosures, curbing recklessness in pursuing merely economic goals. The book shows – from the perspective of agriculture – how human activities can increase the negative impacts of climate change on lifestyle in Malaysia, suggesting alternative lifestyles and encouraging international cooperative efforts. The last chapters evaluate the impacts of various environmental factors on the local tourism sector in Pakistan, and discuss strategies to tackle climate change, focusing on the opportunities and risks of climate engineering. Since these risks encompass inadvertent negative effects and targeted abuse for covert weather warfare and terrorism that violate the UN’s ENMOD convention, the author recommends viable alternatives to deal with climate change.

Mode 3 Knowledge Production In Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems

Author: Elias G. Carayannis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461420620
Size: 42.20 MB
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Developed and developing economies alike face increased resource scarcity and competitive rivalry. In this context, science and technology appear as an essential source of competitive and sustainable advantage at national and regional levels. However, the key determinant of their efficacy is the quality and quantity of entrepreneurship-enabled innovation that unlocks and captures the benefits of the science enterprise in the form of private, public or hybrid goods. Linking basic and applied research with the market, via technology transfer and commercialization mechanisms, including government-university-industry partnerships and capital investments, constitutes the essential trigger mechanism and driving force of sustainable competitive advantage and prosperity. In this volume, the authors define the terms and principles of knowledge creation, diffusion, and use, and establish a theoretical framework for their study. In particular, they focus on the “Quadruple Helix” model, through which government, academia, industry, and civil society are seen as key actors promoting a democratic approach to innovation through which strategy development and decision making are exposed to feedback from key stakeholders, resulting in socially accountable policies and practices.

How To Do Science With Models

Author: Axel Gelfert
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319279548
Size: 46.63 MB
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Taking scientific practice as its starting point, this book charts the complex territory of models used in science. It examines what scientific models are and what their function is. Reliance on models is pervasive in science, and scientists often need to construct models in order to explain or predict anything of interest at all. The diversity of kinds of models one finds in science – ranging from toy models and scale models to theoretical and mathematical models – has attracted attention not only from scientists, but also from philosophers, sociologists, and historians of science. This has given rise to a wide variety of case studies that look at the different uses to which models have been put in specific scientific contexts. By exploring current debates on the use and building of models via cutting-edge examples drawn from physics and biology, the book provides broad insight into the methodology of modelling in the natural sciences. It pairs specific arguments with introductory material relating to the ontology and the function of models, and provides some historical context to the debates as well as a sketch of general positions in the philosophy of scientific models in the process.

Ecological Processes At Marine Fronts

Author: Eduardo Marcelo Acha
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319154796
Size: 63.59 MB
Format: PDF
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This book reviews and summarizes the results and hypotheses raised by studies directly or indirectly dealing with the ecology of fronts and aims to identify the themes that connect them to produce a synthesis of this knowledge. Though not immediately perceived the ocean is highly structured and fronts are one of the most important components of its structural complexity. Marine fronts have been known since the early 20th Century, however, the more recent availability of high resolution satellite imagery, field measurements and numerical simulations have greatly advanced our understanding of their ecological impact. This work touches on topics such as front types, its biology and its comparisons with other bounderies at sea, as well as comparisons of fronts with terrestrial boundaries and the ‘ecotone’ concept. Furthermore, it also looks at the management and conservation of marine life.

International Business History

Author: Dennis Michael Patrick McCarthy
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780275944131
Size: 29.78 MB
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This text presents for the first time the history of international business, using both a case and contextual approach. Case studies from around the world are analyzed in both their internal and external contexts. Divided into five geographical sections--Europe, North America, Central America/South America/the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia/the Western Pacific--the text features case studies of particular businesses of various periods, as well as essays on international business and economic integration in the particular regions. Introductions to each section define main themes and relate the case studies to those themes; commentaries introduce each case study and summarize key issues. This pioneering text is suitable for upper-division courses in international business history. It can also serve as a supplementary text in courses in international economic history, international economic relations, economic development, and comparative management

Development Aid Populism And The End Of The Neoliberal Agenda

Author: Viktor Jakupec
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319727486
Size: 60.84 MB
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This volume examines the impact of the Trump presidency on development aid. It starts out by describing the rise of national populism, the political landscape and the reasons for rejection of the political establishment, both under Trump and internationally. Next, it gives a historical-political overview of development aid in the post WW-II era and discusses the dominant Washington Consensus doctrine and its failure. It then provides a critique of the Official Development Assistance (ODA) discourse and reviews the political economy of ODA, the discourse, and the conditionalities that are barriers to socio-economic development. The final chapters explore the question of Trumponomics as an alternative to the global neoliberal ODA, and the potential impact of Trumponomics’ on ODA. The book concludes with thoughts on the potential future directions for ODA within the ‘ideals’ of Trumponomics and national populism.

From Smart City To Smart Region

Author: Corinna Morandi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319173383
Size: 80.10 MB
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This book offers a fascinating exploration of the relationship between information and communication technologies (ICTs) and spatial planning, expanding the concept of “urban smartness” from the usual scale of buildings or urban projects to the regional dimension. In particular, it presents the outcomes of research undertaken at Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with Telecom Italia, that had three principal goals: to investigate the use of ICTs for the representation, promotion, management, and dissemination of an integrated system of services; to explore the spatial impacts of digital services at different scales (regional, urban, local); and to understand how a system of mobile services can encourage new spatial uses and new collective behavior in the quest for better spatial quality of places. Useful critical analysis of international case studies is also included with the aim of verifying the opportunities afforded by new digital services not only to improve the urban efficiency but also to foster the evolution of urban communities through enhancement of the public realm. The book will be a source of valuable insights for both scholars and local administrators and operators involved in smart city projects.

Wireless Networked Music Performance

Author: Leonardo Gabrielli
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811003351
Size: 56.68 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.