The Dyslexia Debate

Author: Julian G. Elliott
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521119863
Size: 27.19 MB
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An examination of how we use the term 'dyslexia' and how this may undermine aid for struggling readers.

Optometric Management Of Learning Related Vision Problems

Author: Mitchell Scheiman
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323029655
Size: 30.94 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book explores the relationship between vision and learning and the role of optometrists in the assessment and management of learning related vision problems. It discusses normal child development, the learning process, learning disabilities, the relationship between vision and learning, and models for managing vision problems affecting learning. It is also of interest to health care practitioners involved in the evaluation and treatment of children and adults with learning difficulties. Instructor resources are available; please contact your Elsevier sales representative for details. Presents an organized, easy-to-follow approach to the diagnosis and treatment of learning-related vision problems. Each chapter contains key terms and chapter review questions making it more appealing to the student and instructor. Includes appendices containing sample reports, sample questionnaires, sample letters, a bibliography, and case histories showing the reader how to use the material from the book in practice. Well respected authors and contributors provide authoritative coverage of the topic. Expanded information on the use of colored lenses and reading. New chapter on reading disorders that covers how children learn to read, teaching methods, optometric assessment, and management of dyslexia. Chapters have been updated with new computer software options, including computer aided vision therapy, perceptual home therapy system, and temporal visual processing program. Updated testing battery, including new tests, visual processing speed, and optometric use of IQ screening tests such as K-BIT. Expanded coverage of psycho education evaluation includes substantial updates with new test instruments, such as WISC. Substantial revisions based on literature review for last 10 years. New and updated illustrations.

Fluency In Reading

Author: Zvia Breznitz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113563744X
Size: 50.67 MB
Format: PDF
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This is the first book to examine in-depth the crucial role of the speed of information processing in the brain in determining reading fluency in both normal and dyslexic readers. Part I explains fluency in reading from both traditional and modern perspectives. Fluency has historically been viewed as the outcome of other reading-related factors and has often been seen as a convenient measure of reading skills. This book, however, argues that fluency has a strong impact on other aspects of reading and plays a central role in the entire reading process. Part II deals with the determinants of reading fluency. Chief among these is the speed of information processing in the brain. Using both behavioral and electrophysiological evidence, the book systematically examines the features of processing speed in the various brain systems involved in reading: visual-orthographic, auditory-phonological, and semantic and shows how speed of processing affects fluency in reading. Part III deals with the complex issues of cross-modal integration and specifically with the need for effective synchronization of the brain processes involved in reading. It puts forward the Synchronization Hypothesis and discusses the role of the Asynchrony Phenomenon as a major factor in dyslexia. Finally, it summarizes research on manipulating reading rate by means of the Acceleration method, providing evidence for a possible intervention aimed at reducing Asynchrony. Key features of this outstanding new book include: *Expanded View of Fluency. Reading fluency is seen as both a dependent and an independent Variable. Currently available books focus on reading rate solely as the outcome of other factors whereas this volume stresses that it is both an outcome and a cause. *Information Processing Focus. Fluency itself is determined to a large extent by a more general factor, namely, speed of processing in the brain. The book presents wide-ranging evidence for individual differences in speed of processing across many subpopulations. *Brain Synchronization Focus. The book posits a new theory arguing that effective reading requires synchronization of the different brain systems: visual orthographic, auditory-phonological, and semantic. *Research-Based Interventions. Interventions to enhance fluency and, thereby, reading skills in general are presented in detail. *Author Expertise. Zvia Breznitz is Head of the Department of Learning Disabilities and Director of the Laboratory for Neurocognitive Research at Haifa University in Israel, where she has been researching this topic for over a decade. This book is appropriate for researchers and advanced students in reading, dyslexia, learning disabilities, cognitive psychology, and neuropsychology.

Foundations Of Reading Acquisition And Dyslexia

Author: Benita A. Blachman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 080582362X
Size: 71.37 MB
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The chapters in this volume are based on presentations made at a recent conference on cognitive and linguistic foundations of reading acquisition. The researchers who participated have all made contributions to the theoretical and empirical understanding of how children learn to read. They were asked to address not only what they have learned from their research, but also to discuss unsolved problems. This dialogue prompted numerous questions of both a theoretical and applied nature, generated heated debate, and fueled optimism about the important gains that have been made in the scientific understanding of the reading process, especially of the critical role played by phonological abilities.

Understanding Developmental Dyslexia Linking Perceptual And Cognitive Deficits To Reading Processes

Author: Pierluigi Zoccolotti
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889198642
Size: 52.24 MB
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Understanding the mechanisms responsible for developmental dyslexia (DD) is a key challenge for researchers. A large literature, mostly concerned with learning to read in opaque orthographies, emphasizes phono-logical interpretations of the disturbance. Other approaches focused on the visual-per-ceptual aspects of orthographic coding. Recently, this perspective was supported by imaging data showing that individuals with DD have hypo-activation in occipito-temporal areas (a finding common to both transpar-ent and opaque orthographies). Nevertheless, it is difficult to infer causal relationships from activation data. Accommodating these findings within the cognitive architecture of reading processes is still an open issue. This is a general problem, which is present in much of the literature. For example, several studies investigating the perceptual and cognitive abilities that distinguish groups of children with and without DD failed to provide explicit links with the reading process. Thus, several areas of investigation (e.g., acoustic deficits or magnocellular deficiencies) have been plagued by replication failures. Furthermore, much research has neglected the possible contribution of comorbid symptoms. By contrast, it is now well established that developmental disorders present a large spectrum of homotopic and heterotopic co-morbidities that make causal interpretations problematic. This has led to the idea that the etiology of learning difficulties is multifactorial, thus challenging the traditional models of DD. Recent genetic studies provide information on the multiple risk factors that contribute to the genesis of the disturbance. Another critical issue in DD is that much of the research has been conducted in English-speaking individuals. However, English is a highly irregular orthography and doubts have been raised on the appropriateness of automatically extending interpretations based on English to other more regular orthographies. By contrast, important information can be gotten from systematic comparisons across languages. Thus, the distinction between regular and irregular orthographies is another potentially fruitful area of investigation. Overall, in spite of much research current interpretations seem unable to integrate all available findings. Some proposals focus on the cognitive description of the reading profile and explicitly ignore the distal causes of the disturbance. Others propose visual, acoustic or phonological mech-anisms but fail to link them to the pattern of reading impairment present in different children. The present Research Topic brings together studies based on different methodological approaches (i.e., behavioural studies examining cognitive and psycholinguistic factors, eye movement inves-tigations, biological markers, neuroimaging and genetic studies), involving dyslexic groups with and without comorbid symptoms, and in different orthographies (transparent and opaque) to identify the mechanisms underlying DD. The RT does not focus on a single model or theory of dyslexia but rather brings together different approaches and ideas which we feel are fruitful for a deeper understanding developmental dyslexia.

The Handbook Of The Neuropsychology Of Language

Author: Miriam Faust
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444345885
Size: 72.78 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This handbook provides a comprehensive review of new developments in the study of the relationship between the brain and language, from the perspectives of both basic research and clinical neuroscience. Includes contributions from an international team of leading figures in brain-language research Features a novel emphasis on state-of-the-art methodologies and their application to the central questions in the brain-language relationship Incorporates research on all parts of language, from syntax and semantics to spoken and written language Covers a wide range of issues, including basic level and high level linguistic functions, individual differences, and neurologically intact and different clinical populations

Specific Learning Disabilities

Author: Yitzchak Frank
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199342040
Size: 63.17 MB
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This book is a concise but comprehensive review of Specific Learning Disabilities, with a special attention to the biology of these diverse conditions. The reader will get a review of most aspects of SLD, including the different clinical syndromes (mostly dyslexia and dyscalculia), the clinical manifestations and the therapeutic approaches. It is unique in the proportion of its content dedicated to the biological aspects of SLD. It attempts to assemble and present the biological knowledge which has been accumulated on these conditions. This knowledge includes the neurological anatomy of dyslexia and dyscalculia, demonstrated with the help of modern neuro-imaging studies, and the physiology and the genetics of these conditions, again demonstrated by recently available technologies. These new technologies produced major discoveries related to SLD including the importance of phonological processing in reading, the presence of "number center?in the brain, and the rain networks involved in reading. We recognize that many dyslexic subjects have a deficit in aspects of language processing, specifically phonological processing; that dyscalculia can be the result of a number of distinct cognitive impairments, and that the basic underlying deficit in many cases of SLD may be a genetic variation. The same new biological investigative techniques can, like never before, measure the outcome of therapeutic techniques and learning methods. Such measurements will, in the future, be the "gold standard?in assessing the efficacy of different methods of classroom teaching in regular and different learners. Last, unlike many other publications on SLD, this book discusses the relatively unrecognized emotional aspects of SLD, and the sometime devastating effects that these conditions have on the life of affected subjects and their families, in and out of the classroom.

Essentials Of Dyslexia Assessment And Intervention

Author: Nancy Mather
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118152662
Size: 44.98 MB
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Quickly acquire the knowledge and skills you need to effectively understand, assess, and treat individuals struggling with dyslexia Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention provides practical, step-by-step information on accurately identifying, assessing, and using evidence-based interventions with individuals with dyslexia. Addressing the components that need to be considered in the assessment of dyslexia—both cognitive and academic—this book includes descriptions of the various tests used in a comprehensive dyslexia assessment along with detailed, evidence-based interventions that professionals and parents can use to help individuals struggling with dyslexia. Like all the volumes in the Essentials of Psychological Assessment series, each concise chapter features numerous callout boxes highlighting key concepts, bulleted points, and extensive illustrative material, as well as test questions that help you gauge and reinforce your grasp of the information covered. Providing an in-depth look at dyslexia, this straightforward book presents information that will prepare school psychologists, neuropsychologists, educational diagnosticians, special education teachers, as well as general education teachers, to recognize, assess, and provide effective treatment programs for dyslexia. The book is also a good resource for parents who are helping a child with dyslexia. A practical guide to understanding, assessing, and helping individuals who have dyslexia Expert advice and tips throughout Conveniently formatted for rapid reference Other titles in the Essentials of Psychological Assessment series: Essentials of Assessment Report Writing Essentials of School Neuropsychological Assessment Essentials of Evidence-Based Academic Interventions Essentials of Response to Intervention Essentials of Processing Assessment Essentials of Conners Behavior Assessments Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment, Second Edition Essentials of WISC-IV Assessment, Second Edition